(第2套)2015年12月大学英语四级考试真题答案及解析

考试不挂2020-11-20 16:23:12

2015年12月大学英语四级考试真题(二)答案与详解


Part Ⅰ         Writing

审题思路

这是一篇四级考试中常见的议论文。此次话题lifelong learning(终身学习)在考生日常生活中是比较常见的,因此写起来难度不大。考生应该将重点放在第二段阐释终身学习的重要性上。尤其可以结合当今信息时代涌现的一些新事物、新现象,比如从近几年出现的网店、打车软件等展开讨论,从而使论证有理有据,避免空洞说理。

写作提纲

一、引出话题:终身学习很重要(the importance of lifelong learning) 

二、论证重要性:在信息时代,必须通过不断学习,紧跟时代步伐(keep pace with the times through ceaseless leaning):     1、使用打车软件(a Taxi App)的出租车司机比不用软件的司机挣得多

2、—个开网店的家庭主妇甚至比白领职员挣得多(out-earn a white-collar worker)

三、深化主题、总结全文:活到老、学到老;只有不断学习,才能在迅速发展的社会中实现肖身潜能(achieve our potential),生活得更好(live a better life)

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高分范文 精彩点评

Learning Should Be a Lifelong Process

①It is often said that learning is a daily experience and a lifetime mission. ②The saying indicates the importance of lifelong learning, which we have been lectured over and over again.

③ Lifelong learning is crucial to our life and career in modem  society. ④ Living in the Information Age, we have to keep pace with the times through ceaseless learning; otherwise, well be too outdated to seize any opportunities.⑤ For example,a taxi driver who learns to use a Taxi App such as Didi can make much more money than those who don’t; a housewife who opens a shop online can even out-earn a white-collar worker.⑥ All of their success can be attributed to their constant learning in addition to the progress of technology.

⑦ As an old saying goes, it is never too old to learn. Thus, learning is an attitude regardless of age. Only through learning ceaselessly can we achieve our potential and live a better life in this rapidly developing society. ① 开门见山,引出谚语。

②点明话题:终身学习的重要性。

 ③④⑤⑥分析终身学习为何重要,并举例进行具体论证。

1.  ⑦恰当地引用谚语,深化主题。

 

全文翻译

学习应该是一个终身的过程

常言道:学习是一种日常体验和终身使命。这句话揭示了终身学习的重要性,这也是我们被反复教导的一个道理。

终身学习在现代社会对于我们的生活和事业至关重要。生活在信息时代,我们必须通过无止境的学习来紧跟时代步伐,否则,将会因落伍而失去很多机会。例如,一个学习使用诸如滴滴打车之类软件的出租车司机比不用打车软件的司机要挣得多得多;一个开网店的家庭主妇甚至比白领职员挣得多。他们的成功除了归功于科技进步外,还归功于他们的不断学习。

俗话说得好:活到老,学到老。因此,学习是一种态度,无关乎年龄。只有通过不断学习,我们才能在当今迅速发展的社会中发挥自身潜能,生活得更好。


PartⅡ        Listening Comprehension

Section A

1.听力原文:W: Hello, Mr. Harrison, thanks for calling. Now, when would it be good for you to visit our company? 

M: Well. In fact, I can come almost any time next month. And probably toward the end of a week would be best for me.

Q : What are the speakers talking about?

【预测】四个选项均为描述事实状况的短语,结合选项中多次出现的meeting —词,以及details, next week和the man’s visit等,可以推断,对话内容与男士的出访和会面有关,而且此次会面尚未达成。

【精析】D。女士询问男士什么时候方便到她所在的公司参观,男士说下个月几乎任何时间都行,可能接近周末的时间最好。由此可知,两人在谈论男士参观女士所在公司的时间,故答案为D)。

2. 听力原文W: Can you help me find a book on South America?

M : What specifically would you like to know about ? We catalogue our books in many different ways.

Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place?

【预测】四个选项均为表示场所的短语,可以推测本题考查地点,听对话时注意捕捉提示对话发生场所的关键词。

【精析】C)。女士请男士帮助她寻找一本关于南美洲的书,男士反问女士具体想要哪方面的书籍,因为他们通过多种不同的方式对书籍进行归类。由此可知,对话发生在图书馆,故答案为C)。

3.听力原文:M: I’m trying to make a call to New York and haven't been able to get through. Can you help me?

W : Sure. Try my phone.

Q : What is the man’s problem?

【预测】四个选项均以he cannot开头,可以推断对话中男士一定是遇到了某种问题,结合选项中出现的

call,可以推断对话中男士一定是遇到了某种问题,结合选项中出现的call, get through, phone number和public phone等词,可以进一步确定男士遇到的问题与电话有关。

【精析】B)。男士说他在尝试打电话到纽约,但一直没打通,询问女士能否帮助他,女士很爽快地答应,并让男士试试她的手机。由此可知,男士没办法打电话到纽约,故答案为B)。

4.听力原文:M: I have to go to Prof. Hudson’s office to discuss my thesis. If time allows,I’d like to go to the movies with you when I come back.

W : I don’t think I can make it. I’m going shopping with Jane right now.

Q : What is the man going to do first?

【预测】四个选项均为表示行为的动词短语,可以推断本题考查的内容与行为动作有关。结合选项中出现的with the woman和his thesis等词,可以进一步判定本题考查的是男士的行为动作,因此男士的话为听音重点。

【精析】D)。男士说他必须去哈德森教授的办公室讨论他的论文,如果时间允许的话,他希望回来后能和女士一起去看电影,而女士却说她不一定能赶得及,因为她现在要和简去购物。由此可知,男士首先要做的事情是与哈德森教授讨论他的论文,故答案为D)。

5.听力原文:W : Why are you so upset and worried?

M: I’ve been racking my brains all morning,trying to recall where I put my gold watch. But it has been in vain.

Q : What do we learn about the man?

【预测】四个选项的主语均为he,结合选项中多次出现的watch可以推断本题考查内容与男士的手表相关,听录音时注意与手表相关的内容。

【精析】C)。女士问男士为什么那么心烦和焦虑,男士说他整个上午一直在回忆,试图回想起来他把金表放到哪儿了,但一直都是徒劳。由此可知,男士仍然不知道他把金表放在哪儿了,故答案为C)。

6.听力原文:W: I thought you said you were going to call me last week about the car I’m selling.

M: Oh, I’m sorry. It completely slipped my mind.

Q: What does the man mean?

【预测】四个选项的主语均为he,结合选项中出现的forgot, slipped and hurt, sorry和sold等词,可以初步推断与男士相关的事实并不是特别好的事实,因此听录音时要注意捕捉与男士相关的信息。 

【精析】A)。女士说她记得男士说过上周会给她打电话,与她讨论一下她要卖的那辆车,男士听到女士的话后,马上表示道歉,因为这件事completely slipped my mind,本题的关键在于理解短语slip one’s mind 的含义,即“忘记”。也就是说,男士把这件事忘得一干二净,故答案为A)。

7.听力原文:W : I tried to catch the bus but couldn’t make it. So I’m late for class.

M: Another excuse. Are you ready for what you’ll say tomorrow?

Q: What does the man imply about the woman?

【预测】四个选项均以she开头,结合选项中出现的absent, class, excuses和being late等词,可以推断女士上课出勤情况不好,对话内容应该围绕女士上课出勤情况展开。

【精析】C)。女士说她努力赶汽车,但没有赶上,所以上课才会迟到,男士却说又一个借口,并问她是不是连明天要说什么都准备好了。由此可知,男士认为女士总是在为她的迟到找借口,故答案为C) 。

8.听力原文:M: The apartment building I live in is going to be tom down before the end of this month. I don’t know what to do.

W : Well, my brother is a real estate agent. He can help you out, I think.

Q : What do we learn about the man?

【预测】四个选项均以he开头,结合选项中出现的move out of, building, real estate agent和stay with 一词,可以推断对话内容与男士的住房情况有关。

【精析】B)。男士说他住的那栋公寓楼月底前就要拆除了,他对此一筹莫展,女士告诉男士,她弟弟是房地产经纪人,应该能够为男士提供帮助。由此可知,男士必须在短期内搬离现在的住所,故答案为B)。

Conversation One

9-11.听力原文:

M:Ace Employment Agency. Good morning.

W:Good morning. I wonder if you can help me. I’m looking for a job.

M:I’ll see what we can do. Uh... Have you been to us before?

W :No. (9) But you’ve managed to get jobs for some of my friends. So I thought, perhaps, you know.

M:Yes, I see. First of all, could you give me your fall name?

W :Yes, of course. Susan Hollies.

M: Good. And could I have your phone number?

W :Yes. 7788992.

M:Fine. And your date of birth, please?

W :Feb. 3rd, 1980.

M: Thank you. Now education. Which school did you go to?

W: (10) I went to a secondary school in South Town.

M : And have you been to college?

W: No. (10) I left full-time education when I was 18.

M : I see. Any qualifications?

W: Yes. I gained a shorthand and typing diploma at evening classes.

M : That’s good. Now, where are you working at the moment?

W: (11) Well, I’ve got a job as a shorthand-typist. But Fm not enjoying it very much and it doesn5t pay very well.

M: I see. Have you applied for any other jobs?

W: Yes. I thought I’d like to be a policewoman. But they turned me down because I was too short.

M: What would you like to do now, then?

W : Well, I think I’d like to work in a travel agency.

M: I see. I think the best thing is for me to see what we might find for you. And then...

9. How did the woman get to know about the man’s company?

B。【精析】男士问女士是否曾通过他所在的机构找过工作,女士表示没有,但这家职业介绍所曾帮助她的朋友们找到过工作,由此推断,她是从朋友处得知这家职业介绍所的信息的,故答案为B)。

10. What formal education did the woman receive?

C。【精析】对话中男士问女士曾在哪所学校上学,女士说她在South Town上的中学,然后又说,她18岁之后就没有再接受过全日制教育,由此可知,女士所接受的最高程度的正规教育就是中学,故答案为C)。

11. What do we learn about the woman’s occupation?

A。【精析】对话中男士询问女士目前在哪里工作,女士回答说自己现在的工作是一名速记打字员,故答案为A)。

Conversation Two

12—15听力原文:

W : Steve, can you tell me how long you’ve been a pub owner?

M: Well,four years,I suppose. (12) I’ve been involved with pubs off and on for ten years. I’ve sort of done hotel work and I’ve also run a restaurant pub. And now I’ve got what you call a good old-fashioned pub. (13) That is, a public bar, with all the social games going with it, which is what we’ve always wanted to have, you know.

W: It sounds like you’ve always worked in pubs, but not always in this one.

M : No, no. I worked in quite a variety of pubs.

W: What makes a good pub? I mean, you said, you know, it has got a good variety of things.

M: Well, (14) I think having the right customers to start with, selling the right beer, keeping it good, and most of all, keeping a good attitude yourself, even though you probably feel very tired. But the idea is, if you generate from your side, it’s got to affect the other side, if you’re getting the right customers in.

W: Yeah. I must say that’s one thing that has always struck me about being a pub owner. I mean, a lot of people seem to think that ifs a nice job, you know. Everybody says,‘‘ Oh,I’d love to retire and get a country pub.(15) But it seems to me that ifs actually very hard work.

12、What does the man say about his involvement with pubs?

C)。【详解】对话中女士问男士他成为酒吧老板有多长时间了,男士回答说已经四年了,不过他从事与酒吧相关的工作断断续续已经有十年,故答案为C)。

13、What characterizes the old-fashioned pub, according to the man?

D。【详解】对话中男士说他现在的酒吧是那种人们普遍认为的传统酒吧,这种酒吧的特点就是会有很多社交活动,故答案为D。

14、What does the man say is most important in making a good pub?

C。【详解】当女士问男士怎样才能成为好酒吧时,男士说,首先要有合适的顾客,售卖合适的啤酒,并且酒要好,最重要的是,即使感觉很疲惫,也依然要保持良好的态度,这样才能让酒吧更成功,故答案为C)。

15、What does the woman think of running a country pub?

A。【详解】对话结尾时,女士说,很多人都认为经营酒吧是一份很好的工作,每个人都说想在退休以后, 开一家乡村酒吧,但女士却认为经营酒吧实际上是一份相当辛苦的工作。选项A)中的tough是原文中 hard的同义转述,故答案为A)。

Section B

Passage One

To help ourselves and others, it’s important to know something about drugs. A drug is a chemical substance. It can bring about a physical, emotional, or mental change in people. Alcohol and tobacco are drugs. Caffeine, a substance found in coffee and some soft drinks, is also a drug.

(16) Drug abuse is the use of a drug, legal or illegal, that hurts a person or someone close to him. A drug user is the person who takes the drug. There are many kinds of drug users. Experimental users may try drugs once or twice. They want to see what the effects will be. (17) Recreational users take drugs to get high. They use drugs with friends or at parties to get into the mood of things. Regular users take drugs all the time. But they are often able to keep up with the normal routine of work. Dependent users can’t relate to anything but drugs. Their whole life centers around drugs. They feel extreme mental or physical pain without drugs.

It’s not always easy to tell that someone is using drugs. In the early stages, drug use is often hard to see. Sometimes, people like drugs or need drugs so much; they can’t do without them. They are dependent upon drugs. (18) Only a few kinds of drugs can cause physical dependence. But almost any drug, when it’s misused, can make a person think he needs it all the time. By this time, it’s too late and the person is hooked.

16、What does the speaker say about drug abuse?

D。【详解】短文中提到,药物滥用是指合法或非法地使用药物,并对使用者本人或者与其亲近的人造成伤害,故答案为D)。

17、What does the speaker say about recreational drug users?

B。【详解】短文中提到了不同类型的人使用药物的目的。其中提到,Recreational users take drugs to get high.即娱乐性毒品使用者吸毒是为了让自己兴奋,故答案为B)。

18、What does the speaker say about drug dependence?

C。【详解】短文最后一部分提到,虽然仅有很少几种药物会造成身体的依赖性,但若使用不当,几乎所有药物都会让人一直觉得他需要该药物,这时候已经晚了,因为他已经上瘾了。也就是说,药物依赖性很难根除,故答案为C)。


Passage Two

According to Charles Harper, Chairman of ConAgra, the Healthy Choice line of frozen dinners, began with his own heart attack. It has been brought on by years of eating anything he could get his hands on. (19) As he lay in the hospital recovering, Harper imagined the line of healthy frozen foods that tasted good. (20) The Healthy Choice product line was carefully tested with consumers before being introduced to the general public. ConAgra’s research and development staff spent a year working under the instruction “Whatever the cost, don’t sacrifice taste”. The first test market results surprised even the ConAgra team. The low-sodium, low-fat frozen dinners sold much better than expected. (21) According to the firm’s vice-president of marketing and sales, “We benefited from low expectations. The products were much better than people thought they would be.” This finding supported ConAgra’s decision to position the product against other high-quality frozen dinners rather than as a diet or health food. The new product’s brand name and packaging were an important part of the development process. (22) The name Healthy Choice was chosen for the positive implication it held for consumers. Because ConAgra felt the product would be an impulse purchase, it was important to make the item stand out in the freezer case. This was accomplished through the dark green packaging that not only differed from the competitors’ but also suggested freshness and richness in vitamins.

19、What did Charles Harper think of while he was in hospital?

B。【详解】短文中提到,当查尔斯•哈柏因为心脏病发作而躺在医院康复时,他想象着一排健康美味的冷冻食品,故答案为B)。

20、What does the passage say about the Healthy Choice product line before it went to market?

A。【详解】短文中提到,在真正投放到市场面向大众之前,Healthy Choice系列的食品经过了消费者的认真测试,故答案为A)。

21、What is said to contribute to ConAgra’s business success?

B。【详解】短文中提到,ConAgra公司负责市场营销的副总裁认为,他们从低期待值中受益,产品比人们想象的更出色,故答案为B)。

22、What does the speaker say about the name Healthy Choice?

C。【详解】短文中提到,选择使用Healthy Choice这个商品名称,是因为它能给消费者以正面暗示,故答案为C)。


Passage Three

(23)In the United States, 36 states currently allow capital punishment for serious crimes such as murder. Americans have always argued about the death penalty. (24) Today, there is a serious question about this issue: Should there be a minimum age limit for executing criminals? In other words, is it right for convicted murderers who kill when they are minors—that is, under the age of 18—to receive the death penalty?

In most other countries of the world,there is no capital punishment for minors. In the United States though, each state makes its own decision. Of the 36 states that allow the death penalty, 30 permit the execution of minors.

In the state of South Carolina, a convicted murderer was given the death penalty for a crime he committed while he was a minor. (25) In 1977, when he was 17 years old, James Terry Roach and two friends cruelly murdered three people. Roach’s lawyer fought the decision to execute Mm. The young murderer remained on Death Row for ten years while his lawyer appealed to the governor. The lawyer argued that it is wrong to execute a person for a crime he committed while he was a minor. In the United States, the governor of a state has the power to change a sentence from the death penalty to life in prison. (25) Nonetheless, the governor of South Carolina refused to stop the execution. Roach was finally executed in 1986.

23、What does the speaker say about the death penalty in the United States?

A。【详解】短文开头明确指出,在美国,目前有36个州允许对严重罪行执行死刑,比如谋杀。也就是说,美国大部分地区有死刑的存在,故答案为A)。

24、What is the focus of the debate around the death penalty?

B。【详解】短文中提到,目前关于死刑存在一个重大问题:是否应该对被执行死刑的罪犯设置一个最低年龄限制,故答案为B)。

25、What does the speaker say about James Terry Roach?

D。【详解】短文最后提到,1977年,詹姆斯•特里•罗奇当时17岁,与两个朋友一起残忍地杀害了三个人,因此被判死刑。虽然他的律师提起上诉,但该州州长拒绝撤销死刑,最终他于1986年被执行死刑。 由此可知,虽然罗奇在犯罪时仍是未成年人,但依然被执行了死刑。故答案为D)。

Section C

26、transactions。【详解】本句主语they为复数,因此空格处应该填入名词复数形式,作介词as的宾语。.空格所在句分号前提到,大笔借款通常不是问题,而空格所在部分后半句中说条款都已经被白纸黑字地记录下来。由此可见,大笔借款被看作商业交易。.结合录音填入transactions,意为“交易,业务”。

27、in silence。 【详解】本句主干结构完整,此处应该填入副词或副词短语,充当状语,修饰动词suffer。.由该句之后卡萝尔对自己遭遇的描述可以看出,她的朋友金尼经常向她借钱,但从来没有还过,虽然数目不大,而卡萝尔也觉得不好意思,没有要求她还钱,也就是说,她对朋友的行为是默默地忍受。结合录音填入in silence,意为“默默地”。

28、short of。【详解】 此处填入的词或词组应该能够连接系动词is和空格后的名词cash,描述主语金尼与金 钱之间的关系。空格所在句后一句中说,金尼经常向卡萝尔借上一两美元买饮料或者电影票,也就是说,金尼比较缺钱。结合录音填入short of,意为“缺少,缺乏”。 

29、resent。【详解】此处应该填入动词,作句子的谓语。空格所在句及其前两句都是在描述卡萝尔的朋友向她借钱不还,说明卡萝尔对朋友这样的行为表示反感。结合录音填入resent,意为“愤恨,怨恨,憎恶”。

30、embarrassed。【详解】此处位于副词too之后,应该填入形容词。由于朋友只是借上一两美元,如果要求还钱,让人感觉有点小题大做。因此,卡萝尔感觉不好意思让朋友还钱。结合录音填入embarrassed,意为 “困窘的,尴尬的”。

31、spare。【详解】空格前是情态动词的否定形式couldn’t,因此,此处应该填入动词原形,与couldn’t一起作从句的谓语。由于朋友总是借钱不还,而卡萝尔又不好意思向朋友要求还钱,时间长了,卡萝尔决定不再借钱给朋友,再结合本句句首的the last time可以判断,从这一次起,卡萝尔拒绝借钱给朋友。因此,她告诉朋友她没钱可借。结合录音填入spare,意为“提供(时间、钱等);匀出,分出”。

32、response。【详解】此处应该填入考词单数形式,与不定冠词a搭配,作句子的宾语。卡萝尔拒绝再借钱给朋友的方式是说她没钱可借,而另外一位女士的建议更为大胆,本句后面就给出了那位女士在朋友借钱时的反应。结合录音填入response,意为“反应,回答”。 

33、turn the tables。 【详解】此处应该填入动词或动词短语,充当句子的谓语。这位女士的回答更为大胆,当有人借钱不还时,她不是被动忍受,而是扭转局面,主动出击,向朋友提出要求。结合录音填入turn the tables,意为“扭转局面,转败为胜”。

34、realization。【详解】空格位于不定冠词a和形容词sudden之后,因此应该填入单数名词,作介词by的宾语。当把钱拿到手后,这位女士才表现出突然想起来的样子,说这和你上次借我的一样多呢!结合录音填入 realization,意为“意识,领悟”。

35、convenient。【详解】此处应该填入形容词或副词,与how—起构成感叹句。女士假装刚刚反应过来,并告诉对方,她这次借的和对方欠她的一样多,这样省得对方再还钱了,还真是省事呢!结合录音填入 convenient,意为“方便的,便利的”。 

PartⅢ     Reading Comprehension

Section A

答案详解:

36、N) saw。【详解】动词辨析题。本空位于两个名词之间,而且late November and December作句子的主语,因此应填入动词作谓语。此处意思是11月底和12月已经有了初雪,应填入含有该层意思的动同。备选动词中,G) experiences和N) saw符合句意,但本段第一句用了一般过去时,此句承接第一句,因此也应该用一般过去时,故答案为N) saw。本题也可以先根据时态将选项范围缩小至B) associated、C)bore、E) communicated 和 N) saw,再根据句意排除 B)、C)和 E)。

37、F) decades。【详解】名词辨析题。本空位于数词之后,故应填人名词。此处意为二:  以来第一次有记录的寒冷天数可能超过有记录的温暖天数。由句意可知本空应填入表示时间的名,故答案为F) decades “十年”。two后面应填入复数名词,因此可将选项范围缩小至D) chances、F) decades、G) experiences 和 K) populations,再根据句意排除 D)、G)和 K)。

38、H) globally。【详解】副词辨析题。本句属于主系表结构,并不缺少主要成分,因此应填入副词作状语。 本段第一、二句讲的是美国2013年11月底和12月比往年冷,第三句开始转折,说美国是特例。本句进一步解释说11月是 最暖和的,应该是将美国和全球其他国家对比得出的,因此答案为H) globally。备选副词I) logically不符合句意,因此排除。

39、D) chances。【详解】名词辨析题。本空位于原因状语从句的系动词are之前,故应填入名词作主语。本句是对2014年天气的预测:2014年会更热,也许是有记录以来最热的年份。由perhaps...可知本空应填入有 “可能”含义的名词,故答案为D) chances。

40、 J) occurs。【详解】动词辨析题。分析句子结构可知,空格位于主语El Nino之后,应填入动词作谓语。本句解释什么是厄尔尼诺现象,句意为:当南太平洋表层海水温度异常升高时,厄尔尼诺就会 。因此本空应填入有“出现;发生”含义的词,故答案为J) occurs。本题也可以根据句子成分逐步分析,本句中,E1 Nino是主语,Spanish for “the child”是其同位语,when引导时间状语从句。同位语是对其前面名词的进一步解释说明,去掉并不影响句子的结构,在分析时可以省略,因此可判断本句缺少谓语动词。另外,本段在介绍厄尔尼诺现象时,用的都是现在时,可以将选择范围缩小至动词G) experiences和J) occurs,再根据句意排除G)。

41、A) additional 。【详解】形容词辨析题。本空位于定冠词the和名词energy之间,因此应填入形容词作修饰语。句意为:由于温度升高带来的____能量足以引发全球一系列的天气变化。温度升高必然会带来额外的能量,故答案为A) additional “额外的,附加的”。备选的形容词只有A) additional、 B) associated和specific,可根据句意排除B)和O)。

42、B) associated。【详解】动词辨析题。本空位于系动词are之后,应填入形容词或可作表语的分词、动同被动语态。本题前一句提到厄尔尼诺现象足以引发全球一系列的天气变化,本句对此举例说明,指出厄尔尼诺与东南亚和澳大利亚的极端干旱天气有关。因此应填入含有“相关的”含义的词,故答案为B) associated。符合条件的备选词中,A) additional、C) bore、E) communicated和O) specific均不能与with搭配,故排除。

43、G) experiences。【详解】动词辨析题。本空位于两个名词(词组)之间,应填入动词作谓语。本句仍然在说明厄尔尼诺带来的天气变化,南北美洲部分地区极端降雨,即便是在非洲南部 干旱的时候。由句意可知,本空应填入有“遭受”含义的动词,故答案为G) experiences。另外,本段在介绍厄尔尼诺现象,用的都是现在时,可以将选择范围缩小至动词G) experiences和J) occurs,而J) occurs已在上文用过,故排除。

44、M) reduce。【详解】动词辨析题。本空位于情态动词can之后,应填入动词原形。本句意为:厄尔尼诺会 寒冷但营养丰富的海水的上升。根据本段第一句可知,厄尔尼诺发生意味着海水温度升高,自然不利于寒冷海水的上升,故答案为M) reduce。备选动词L) realize不符合句意,故排除。

45、K) populations。【详解】名词辨析题。本空位于句末名词之后,应填入名词。that引导的定语从句的意 思是:这些海水供养着大量的鱼   。由句意可知,此处意为“鱼群”,故答案为K) populations。备选名 词中D) chances、F) decades和G) experiences均在上题中已选,而N) saw显然与句意不符,因此均排除。


Section B

Passage One 

46、Cooking benefits people in many ways and enables them to connect with one another.

D)。【译文】烹饪在很多方面都使人受益,使他们能够彼此联系。

【精析】C)段提到美国人习惯了吃外面卖的食品,而不是自己做饭,紧随其后的D)段中有三个问句,都是针对为什么美国人会有这样的饮食习惯而提问。前两句虽然是一般疑问句,但由上下文可以判断,这两句都含反问意味,其真实意思是说:烹饪以及享用食物是一种舒适、骄傲、健康、幸择、休闲以及社交的源泉,能够将我们与他人联系在一起。题干是对这两句话的总结,故答案为D)。

47、Abundant information about cooking is available either online or on TV.

B)。【译文】在网络或电视上,都可以获取大量关于烹饪的信息。

【精析】B)段前半部分说明,在美国购买用于烹饪的食材非常方便。后半段则提到,信息也不是问题,任何有电脑、智能手机或者电视的人都能够获取大量的食谱、教学视频和烹饪课程。甚至可以说,此类信息铺天盖地。题干是对这两句话的总结,故答案为B)。

48、Young people do less cooking at home than the elderly these days.

F)。【译文】如今,与老年人相比,年轻人在家做饭比较少。

【精析】F)段前半部分通过数据揭示了目前美国人对于在家做饭这件事情的态度,后半部分涉及年轻人和老年人做饭的不同频率:在那些65岁及以上年龄的人群中,52%的人每周至少在家做五次饭;而年轻人中,只有三分之一的人这样做。三分之一的频率低于52%的频率。题干是对画线部分的同义转述,故答案为F)。

49、Cooking skills can be improved with practice.

O)。【译文】烹饪技巧能够通过练习得以提高。

【精析】O)段开头就说,做饭不需要拥有大量的技巧,画线部分明确指出,唯一的补救办法就是练习。与任何其他技能一样,你做饭的次数越多,就会变得越容易;每做一次饭,你的烹饪水平就会提高一点。题干是对这两句话的总结,故答案为O)。

50、In the mid-20th century, most families ate dinner at home instead of eating out.

G)。【译文】20世纪中期,大部分家庭都在家吃饭,而不是外出就餐。

【精析】G)段指出,20世纪50年代,在我们大多数人成长的家庭中,妈妈几乎每天晚上都会做饭。将家常饭菜摆上餐桌是非常普遍的意愿。除此之外,大多数人都负担不起出去吃饭。也就是说,那时,大多数家庭都不会外出就餐,两是自己在家做饭吃。题干中的mid-20th century是对原文中1950s的同义转述,题干是对这三句话的总结,故答案为G)。

51、Even those short of time or money should be encouraged to cook for themselves and their family.

E)。【译文】即使有些人不怎么有时间或钱,也应该鼓励他们为自己和家人做饭。

【精析】E)段中说,作者的任务是鼓励新手和那些没时间或没钱的人喂饱自己,我们需要教会人们烹饪足够好的食物以与家人和朋友分享。题干中的short of time or money是对原文中lacking time or money的同义转述,题干中的 cook for themselves and their family 对应原文中的 feed themselves 和 share with family,故答案为E)。

52、Eating food not cooked by ourselves can cause serious consequences.

J) 。【译文】吃那些不是自己烹饪的食物会造成严重后果。

【精析】J)段中说,鉴于政府设立的食品安全标准一点都不够严格,现状就十分明确:不在家做饭,我们就吃不到没有问题的食物,而其后果也很难再夸大。也就是说,会造成严重后果,题干中的cause serious consequences 是对原文中 the consequences are hard to overstate 的同义转述,故答案为 J)。

53、To eat well and still save money, people should buy fresh food and cook it themselves.

M)。【译文】想要既吃好又省钱,人们应该购买新鲜食品,自己烹饪。

【精析】M)段开头就说,对于那些经济上不怎么宽裕的美国人来说,作者的建议很简单:购买那些你买得起的东西,然后自己做饭。接下来,作者推荐了出售新鲜食材的食品杂货店,说想要既省钱又吃好,你并不需要本地的有机食材;只要是真正的食物就可以了。题干是对这三句话的总结,故答案为M)。

54、We get a fairly large portion of calories from fast food and snacks.

C)。【译文】我们相当大一部分的卡路里都来自于快餐和零食。

【精析】C)段中通过数据说明了快餐和零食富含高热量,根据文章数据,人们日常卡路里摄人量中,可能至少有三分之一来自于家常饭菜以外。有将近三分之二的人一周吃一次快餐,而且我们从零食中获取的卡路里几乎达到日常卡路里摄人量的25%。题干是对画线部分的总结,故答案为C)。

55、The popularity of TV led to the popularity of frozen food.

H)。【译文】电视的普及使得冷冻食品流行开来。

【精析】H)段第一句指出,虽然在40年代就发明了冷冻食品,但直到十几年后,电视机的流行才促使它们大受欢迎。题干是对画线部分的同义转述,故答案为H)。

Section C  


Passage One


答案详解:

56、A)。定位:由题干中的 happening to the wallet 定位至第一段第一句:the wallet is heading for extinction.

详解:事实细节题。第一段第一句开篇便点明钱包正走向灭绝。因此A) “它正在消失”符合文意,故为答案。

点睛:B) “它正在变厚”、C) “它正变得昂贵”和D) “它的样式正发生变化”在原文中均未提及,因此均排除。

57、B)。定位:由题干中的 in big modem stores 定位至第一段第六、七句:At the most cutting-edge retail stores—Victoria Beckham on Dover Street, for instance—you don’t go and stand at any kind of cash register when you decide to pay. The staff are equipped with iPads to take your payment while you relax on a sofa.

详解:事实细节题。第一段第六句举例说明在最前沿的商店里人们如何付款。第七句提到,店员都配有平板电脑,顾客在沙发上休息时就可以付账。由此可知,在大型现代商店里,商业交易是通过电子设备完成的,故答案为B)。

点睛:A) “单独地”在原文中并未提及,排除;C) “抽象地”,原文只是说货币的概念被抽象化,并没有说交易抽象地完成,因此排除;D) “通过收银台”,与本段第六句提到的“不需要站在任何收银台前”矛盾,因此排除。

58、D)。定位:由题干中的 makes the author feel uncomfortable 定位至第二段第二至五句:But across society, the abstraction of the idea of cash makes me uneasy. Maybe I’m just old-fashioned. But earning money isn’t quick or easy for most of us. Isn’t it a bit weird that spending it should happen in half a blink (眨眼)of an eye?

详解:事实细节题。第二段介绍作者的看法。现金概念的抽象化使作者感到不安。究其原因是作者认为挣钱不容易,而花钱却在转瞬间,故答案为D)。

点睛:A) “省钱成为了过去”和C) “挣钱变得更加困难”在原文中并未提及,因此排除;B)“周五晚上令人愉悦的感觉正在消退”,与原文不符,因此排除。

59、 A)。定位:由题干中的 why 和 what’s happening to the wallet 定位至第三段第二句:What bothers me about the death of the wallet is the change it represents in our physical environment.

详解:事实细节题。what’s happening to the wallet指的是钱包正走向灭绝。第三段继续介绍作者对钱包即将灭绝的看法。第二句提到,钱包的消失给我带来的困扰是关于它所代表的实体环境的改变。 因此A) “它代表现代世界的一个改变”符合文意,故为答案。

点睛:B) “它与每个人的生活有关”和C) “它标志着一个历史悠久的传统的结束”都是原文流露的事实,并不是作者写作的原因,因此排除;D) “它是当代经济学家所关心的事”是对第三段第一句But I’ll leave the economics to the experts.的曲解,因此排除。

60、D)。定位:由题干定位至第二段第二句:But across society, the abstraction of the idea of cash makes me uneasy.以及第三段第二句:What bothers me about the death of the wallet is the change it represents in our physical environment.

详解:推理判断题。由定位句可以看出,作者对钱包走向灭绝感到不安和困惑,而钱包灭绝正是代表着社会的变化,因此D) “他在不断变化的现代世界中感到不安”符合文意,该选项中的insecure对应定位句中的uneasy和bother,故答案为D)。

点睛:A) “他反对社会变革”和B) “他反对技术进步”在原文中均未提及,因此排除;C) “他不愿意与传统的钱包告别”是对原文第三段最后两句Show your wallet, if you still have one. It may not be here much longer.的解释,过于片面,并不是文章中作者表达的主要意图,因此排除。

Passage Two

答案详解:

61、A)。定位: 由题干中的 sleeping habits 定位到第一段:Everybody sleeps, but what people stay up late to catch—or wake up early in order not to miss—varies by culture.

详解:事实细节题。文章首段后半句指出,人们为了赶上什么而熬夜或者为了不错过什么而早起,却因文化的不同而存在差异。由此可见,人们的睡眠习惯与文化有关,故答案为A)。

点睛:文章第一段提到人们的睡眠与文化有关,第二段又提到影响人们睡眠的几个主要因素:体育赛事、时间变更和假期,并未提到睡眠习惯与健康、季节以及个人之间的关系,故B) “它们影响人们的健康”、C) “它们随着季节而改变”和D) “它们因人而异”三项均可以排除。

62、C)。定位:由题干中的 the Russians regarding sleep 定位到第四段第一句:Russia’s other late nights and early mornings generally correspond to public holidays.

详解:推理判断题。文章第四段第一句指出,俄罗斯其他熬夜或早起的日子基本上与公共假期相一致。故本题答案为C)。

点睛:A)“他们直到很晚才睡觉”,文章第三段提到俄罗斯改为冬令时后,俄罗斯人起床时间比以前晚了,并且第四段提到他们会在假期里早起或晚睡,A)项说法太绝对,故可以排除;B)“他们周末睡得不多”,文章第六段提到美国人会在三日周末熬夜、晚起以及睡得最长,B)项属于张冠李戴,故可以排除;D) “他们比其他地方的人睡的时间更长”,文章第三段提到俄罗斯改为冬令时后,俄罗斯人起床时间比以前晚了,但这推断不出“他们比其他地方的人睡的时间更长”,故可以排除。

63、C)。定位:由题干中的 Europeans’ loss of sleep 定位到第八段:The World Cup is also chiefly responsible for sleep deprivation(剥夺).The worst night for sleep in the U. K. was the night of the England-Italy match...compared to Germans, Italians, and the French, who stayed up...to watch the Cup.

详解:推理判断题。文章第八段首句指出,世界杯也应承担剥夺人们睡眠的主要责任。最后两句用英国人、德国人、意大利人和法国人熬夜看世界杯的例子来论证。因此,欧洲人缺乏睡眠的主要原因是为了看世界杯,故本题答案为C)。

点睛:文章第三段提到俄罗斯改为冬令时后,俄罗斯人起床时间比以前晚了,夏令时的结束对俄罗斯人的睡眠造成了影响,而非欧洲人,故可以排除A) “夏令时”;文章并未提到欧洲人的夜生活是否丰富,B) “丰富的夜生活”属于无中生有,故可以排除;文章第八段第三句提到,夏天北方国家太阳几乎不会落下,由此导致英国人比平时醒得早一些,但是第四句用though转折指出这与德国人、意大利人和法国人为了看世界杯熬夜相比根本不算什么,即夏天并非导致欧洲人缺少睡眠的主要原因,故可以排除D)“夏天”。

64、B)。定位:由题干中的 a device to record their sleep patterns 定倥到最后一段第一、二句:...not everyone has a device to record their sleep patterns …only the richest people do. And people who elect to track their sleep may fry to get more sleep than the average person.

详解:事实细节题。文章最后一段前两句指出,并不是每个人都有设备记录自己的睡眠模式,在以上—些国家中,可能只有最富有的人才这样做;那些选择追踪自己睡眠的人也许是想要获得比普通人更多的睡眠。即富人记录自己睡眠模式最可能的原因是他们想要充足的睡眠,故本题答案为B)。

点睛:A)“他们难以人睡”和C)“他们参与了一项关于睡眠的研究”,文章并未提及,故可以排除;“他们想在固定的时间睡觉”,文章最后一段首句提到他们用设备记录自己的睡眠时间,并未提到他们是想要在固定的时间睡觉,故可以排除。

65、 B)。定位:由题干定位到最后一段:...people who elect to track their sleep may try to get more sleep than the average person... If the most health-conscious among us have such deep swings in our shut¬eye levels throughout the year, how much sleep are the rest of us losing?

详解:推理判断题。文章最后一段最后一句提到,这一整年里,如果我们中最具健康意识的人的睡眠时间都有这么大的浮动,那我们其余的人又失去了多少睡眠呢?换句话说,人们对睡眠不够重视,故本题答案为B)。

点睛:A) “失眠对健康有害”,题干问的是作者在最后一段暗示了什么,A)并非作者暗示的内容,故可以排除;C)“研究我们的睡眠模式很重要”,文章并未提及这一点,故可以排除;D) “普通人可能比富人睡得少”,文章最后一段前两句提到了富人用设备记录自己的睡眠时间,可能是想要获得比普通人更多的睡眠,并没有提到普通人和富人之间谁睡眠时间更多的问题,故可以排除。


PartⅣ     Translation

云南省的丽江古镇是中国著名的旅游目的地之一。那里的生活节奏比大多数中国城市都要缓慢。丽江到处都是美丽的自然风光,众多的少数民族同胞提供了各式各样、丰富多彩的文化让游客体验。历史上,丽江还以“爱之城”而闻名。当地人中流传着许多关于因爱而生、为爱而死的故事。如今,在中外游客 眼中,这个古镇被视为爱情和浪漫的天堂(paradise)。


LiJjiang, an ancient town in Yunnan Province, is one of the most famous tourist attractions in China. The life tempo there is slower than that of most Chinese cities. There is beautiful natural scenery everywhere in Lijiang, and many minorities provide tourists with various and colorful cultural experience. It has also been known as the “City of Love” in history. Numerous legends about people who were bom for love and died for love circulate among the local folk. Nowadays, this ancient town is regarded as the paradise of love and romance in the eyes of both Chinese and foreign visitors.

难点注释:

1、翻译第一句时,首先要确定主语。一种译法是将“丽江”作为主语,将“云南省的古镇”泽为“丽江”的同位语。 另一种译法是直接将“云南省的丽江古镇”作为主语,即Lijiang ancient town of Yunnan Province。相比而言, 第一种译法更地道、更简洁。此外,要注意汉语中的地名翻译成英语时,只有第一个字母大写,而且拼音之间没有空格。“旅游目的地”译为tourist attractions或travel destinations皆可。

2、翻译第二句时,需要用到形容词比较级结构,要注意than前后对比的内容是同样的,这里是丽江的生活节奏和大多数中国城市的生活节奏相比较,因此后面要用that指代life tempo,以避免重复,即译成that of most Chinese cities。“生活节奏”也可译为 the pace of life。

3、翻译第三句时,可以同参考译文一样用and连接两个简单句,也可拆译为两个句子。“美丽的自然风光”也可译为 natural beauties. “提供”译为 provides,搭配有 provide sb. with sth.和 provide sth. for sb.这里 sb. 是tourists,较简洁,因此选用第一种搭配,避免头重脚轻式的结构。“各式各样”除了用various之外,还可以用 a variety of。

4、第四句较简单,“以…闻名”有多种译法,除了 be known as之外,还有be famous for/be well-known for/be renowned for等。因为第一句用到了 famous,所以最好选用be famous for以外的表达,以避免重复。

5、翻译第五句时,可将“关于因爱而生、为爱而死的故事”译为包含定语从句的结构,或者译为stories of people bom for love and dying for love,用 bom 和 dying 两个分词作后置定语修饰 people。“流传”除了用 circulate 之外,还可以译为be handed down。

6、翻译第六句时,可以同参考译文一样使用被动语态,也可以将both Chinese and foreign visitors译作主语,用主动语态。不过用被动语态为佳,这样更突出强调丽江古镇。“被视为”有多种译法,除了用be regarded as以外,还可以译为 be deemed as/be seen as/be considered as/be treated as/be thought of as 等。“中外游客” 还可以译为 tourists from both home and abroad。


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