Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
Why do some people live to be older than others? Youknow the standard explanations: keeping a moderate diet, engaging in regularexercise, etc. But what effect does your personality have on your longevity（长寿）？Do some kinds of personalitieslead to longer lives? A new study in the Journalof the American Geriatrics Society looked at thisquestion by examining the personality characteristics of 246 children of peoplewho had lived to be at least 100.
The study shows that those living the longest are moreoutgoing, more active and less neurotic（神经质的）than other people. Long-living women are alsomore likely to be sympathetic and cooperative than women with a normal lifespan. These findings are in agreement with what you would expect from theevolutionary theory: those who like to make friends and help others can gatherenough resources to make it through tough times.
Interestingly, however, other characteristics that youmight consider advantageous had no impact on whether study participants werelikely to live longer. Those who were more self-disciplined, for instance, wereno more likely to live to be very old. Also, being open to new ideas had norelationship to long life, which might explain all those bad-tempered oldpeople who are fixed in their ways.
Whether you can successfully change your personalityas an adult is the subject of a longstanding psychological debate. But the newpaper suggests that if you want long life, you should strive to be as outgoingas possible.
Unfortunately, another recent study shows that yourmother’s personality may also helpdetermine your longevity. That study looked at nearly 28,000 Norwegian mothersand found that those moms who were more anxious, depressed and angry were morelikely to feed their kids unhealthy diets. Patterns of childhood eating can behard to break when we’readults, which may mean that kids of depressed moms end up dying younger.
Personality isn’t destiny（命运）, and everyone knows thatindividuals can learn to change. But both studies show that long life isn’tjust a matter of your physical health but of your mental health.
51. The aim of the study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society is____________________.
A) to see whether people’spersonality affects their life span
B) to find out if one’slifestyle has any effect on their health
C) to investigate the role of exercise in living a long life
D) to examine all the factors contributing to longevity
52. What does the author imply about outgoing and sympathetic people?
A) They have a good understanding of evolution.
B) They are better at negotiating an agreement.
C) They generally appear more resourceful.
D) They are more likely to get over hardship.
53. What finding of the study might prove somewhat out of ourexpectation?
A) Easy-going people can also live a relatively long life.
B) Personality characteristics that prove advantageous actually varywith times.
C) Such personality characteristics as self-discipline have no effect onlongevity.
D) Readiness to accept new ideas helps one enjoy longevity.
54. What does the recent study of Norwegian mothers show?
A) Children’spersonality characteristics are invariably determined by their mothers.
B) People with unhealthy eating habits are likely to die sooner.
C) Mothers’influence on children may last longer than fathers’.
D) Mothers’negative personality characteristics may affect their children’slife spans.
55. What can we learn from the findings of the two new studies?
A) Anxiety and depression more often than not cut short one’slife span.
B) Longevity results from a combination of mental and physical health.
C) Personality plays a decisive role in how healthy one is.
D) Health is in large part related to one’slifestyle.