English Learning| 四级阅读真题及其答案解析

第五学生公寓工作站2020-07-29 16:32:11

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The question of whether our government should promote science and technology or the liberal arts in higher education isn't an either/or proposition(命题),although the current emphasis on preparing young Americans for STEM(science, technology, engineering, maths)-related fields can make it seem that way.


The latest congressional report acknowledges the critical importance of technical training, but also asserts that the study of the humanities (人文学科)and social sciences must remain central components of America's educational system at all levels. Both are critical to producing citizens who can participate effectively in our democratic society, become innovative(创新的)leaders, and benefit from the spiritual enrichment that the reflection on the great ideas of mankind over time provides.


Parents and students who have invested heavily in higher education worry about graduates' job prospects as technological advances and changes in domestic and global markets transform professions in ways that reduce wages and cut jobs. Under these circumstances, it's natural to look for what may appear to be the most “practical” way out of the problem “Major in a subject designed to get you a job” seems the obvious answer to some, though this ignores the fact that many disciplines in the humanities characterized as “soft” often, in fact, lead to employment and success in the long run. Indeed, according to surveys, employers have expressed a preference for students who have received a broadly-based education that has taught them to write well, think critically, research creatively, and communicate easily.


Moreover, students should be prepared not just for their first job, but for their 4th and 5th jobs, as there's little reason to doubt that people entering the workforce today will be called upon to play many different roles over the course of their careers. The ones who will do the best in this new environment will be those whose educations have prepared them to be flexible. The ability to draw upon every available tool and insight—picked up from science, arts, and technology—to solve the problems of the future, and take advantage of the opportunities that present themselves, will be helpful to them and the United States.


习题


1. What does the latest congressional report suggest?


A) STEM-related subjects help students find jobs in the information society.


B) The humanities and STEM subjects should be given equal importance.


C) The liberal arts in higher education help enrich students' spiritual life.


D) Higher education should be adjusted to the practical needs of society.



2. What is the main concern of students when they choose a major?


A) Their interest in relevant subjects.


B) The academic value of the courses.


C) The quality of education to receive.


D) Their chances of getting a good job.



3. What does the author say about the so called soft subjects?


A) The benefit students in their future life.


B) They broaden students' range of interests.


C) They improve students' communication skills.


D) They are essential to students' healthy growth.



4. What kind of job applicants do employers look for?


A) Those who have a strong sense of responsibility.


B) Those who are good at solving practical problems.


C) Those who are likely to become innovative leaders.


D) Those who have received a well-rounded education.



5. What advice does the author give to college students?


A) Seize opportunities to tap their potential.


B) Try to take a variety of practical courses.


C) Prepare themselves for different job options.


D) Adopt a flexible approach to solving problems.



答案解析



1.B


  本题属于观点型细节题,问最近的一次国会报告提出了什么建议。根据题干定位词latest congressional report 定位到文章第二段第一句。Acknowledge意为“承认”,引出观点。前半句非常简单,“最近的一次国会报告承认了技术训练的关键性”,后半句以but进行语义转折,意为“但是他们也认为关于人文学科和社会科学的研究都必须在任何等级的美国教育系统中作为核心部分”。之后的both areas are critical to…都是在描述这两门学科对塑造人才的积极影响,可以略读。


  再来看四个选项。


  A. STEM在第一段有解释,分别由science, technology, engineering和maths的首字母组成,意为“科学”,“技术”,“工程学”和“数学”。所以A选项的意思是“与STEM相关的学科可以帮助学生在信息社会找到工作”。文章对于STEM的影响的描述只出现在第二段的最后一句话,但没有提及能帮助找工作,属于无中生有,排除。


  B. 意思是“人文学科和STEM应该被给与相同的重要性”。通过第二段第一句话but后面的内容可以确定B为正选。选项唯一的难点是STEM在文中是以social science进行同义替换的方式出现的。Should be given equal importance和原文的must remain central components of …对应。


  C. “高等教育的文科能帮助学生丰富精神世界”。C选项的干扰性同样来自于第二段的最后一句,但需要注意的是原文所说的spiritual enrichment是由reflection on the great ideas of mankind提供而非选项所指的liberal arts. 故C排除。


  D. “高等教育应该适用于社会的实际需求”。这个选项属于无中生有,比较容易排除。



2.D


  题目问学生选择专业时主要关心什么。结合顺序原则可以大致定位到第三段,本段前两句话讲述了家长和学生们在为高等教育做出巨大投资之后所以担心的问题就是市场的变化可能会导致孩子们将来就业机会变少以及工资降低。并且根据这个大背景提出了一个公认的解决的办法,也就是由题干中的major定位到的本段第三句,“Major in a subject designed to get you a job”seems the obvious answer to some,… 意思是“选择一个为给你找到工作而设计的专业是大部分人认可大答案”。


  A.“对相关专业的兴趣。”


  B.“课程的学术价值。”


  C.“接受的教育的质量。”


  D.“找到工作的机会。”原文的同义改写,锁定D答案。



3.A


  问作者如何评价所谓的“软”学科。本题答案依然出自于第三段,57题定位句的后半句,即though this ignores the fact that many disciplines in the humanities characterized as “soft” often, in fact, lead to employment and success in the long run.本句的disciplines与subjects都是“学科”的意思,所以这句话可以翻译成“尽管他们忽略一个事实,那就是人文学科中那些被描述成“软”学科的,通常能够能够促成将来的就业和成功”。


  A.“他们会在将来的生活使学生受益。”benefit与原文的lead to employment and success对应,in their future与原文的in the long run对应。A为正选。


  B.“他们能扩大学生的兴趣。”


  C.“他们能提高学生的交流能力。”


  D.“他们对于学生的健康成长至关重要。”BCD均为无中生有,直接排除。



4.D


  问老板想找什么类型的应聘者。答案出自第三段最后一句话,employers have expressed a preference for students who received a broadly-based education that has taught them how to write well, think carefully, research creatively, and communicate easily. 这句话非常直白地告诉我们老板所偏爱的员工是接受过broadly-based education的人,即“全方位教育”,所以与这句话有相同描述的选项即为正选。


  A.“那些有强烈责任感的人。”


  B.“那些能够解决实际问题的人。”


  C.“那些有可能成为有创新力的领导的人。”


  D.“那些接受过全方位教育的人。”well-rounded是broadly-based的同义改写,所以D为正选。



5.D


  问作者给大学生提了什么建议。全文只有四段话,前三段都已经用于解决之前的四道题,所以最后一题自然而然地定位到最后一段。并且由第一句里的students should…可以看出这段话主要是在讨论相关的建议。由于没有具体的定位词可以参考,所以一般情况下咱们需要快速读完整段话再一一对应选项看有没有符合的内容。


  A.“寻找机会开发自己的潜力。”


  B.“试着参加各种实际课程。”


  C.“为不同的工作选择做好准备。”


  D.“采取灵活的方法来解决问题。”


  本题选择D。答案出自于本段的最后两句话。意思是“能在这种环境下做到最好的一定是那些已经让自己做好随时变通的准备的人。”以及最后作者还评价“能够利用任何可用的工具——不管是来自己于哪个学科,去解决问题,并且利用机会表现自己”的能力会产生很大的帮助。D选项就是对原文的归纳和总结,ABC属于无中生有的干扰项。



编辑 | 刘俞

审核 | 李奕  罗欣  左霄彧


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