Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.
grows=does, develops=does, may break=may do, initiates=does。
2个从句, as引导的时间状语从句，so that 引导的结果状语从句。
4.句子拆分： 主句1: it develops deep fissures (cracks)。 主句2: the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures. 时间状语从句:As the dome grows. 结果状语从句:so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.