Part I Writing (30 minutes) (请于正式开考后半小时内完成该部分，之后将进行听力考试)
Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an advertisement on your campus website to sell some of the course books you used at college. Your advertisement may include a brief description of their content,their condition ,their price and your contact information. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Part II Listening Comprehension (25 minutes) 说明：2017年6月大学英语四级考试全国共考了两套听力.本套的听力内容与第二套相同，因此本套听力部分不再重复给出。 Part Ⅲ
Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices, Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.
As if you needed another reason to hate the gym, it now turns out that exercise can exhaust not only your muscles, but also your eyes. Fear not, however, for coffee can stimulate them again. During(26)_______ exercise, our muscles tire as they run out of fuel and build up waste products. Muscleperformance can also be affected by a (27)_______ called "central fatigue,” in which an imbalance inthe body‟s chemical messengers prevents the central nervous system from directing muscle movements（28)_______. It was not known, however, whether central fatigue might also affect motor systems notdirectly (29) _______ in the exercise itself, such as those that move the eyes. To find out, researchersgave 11 volunteer cyclists a carbohydrate (碳水化合物的）(30)_______ either with a moderate doseof caffeine (咖啡因)，which is known to stimulate the central nervous system, or as a placebo (安慰剂） without, during 3 hours of (31)_______ . After exercising, the scientists tested the cyclists with eyetracking cameras to see how well their brains could still (32)_______ their visual system. The team foundthat exercise reduced the speed of rapid eye movements by about 8%, (33)_______ their ability to capturenew visual information. The caffeine, the equivalent of two strong cups of coffee, was (34)_______ toreverse this effect, with some cyclists even displaying (35)_______ eye movement speeds. So it might bea good idea to get someone else to drive you home after that marathon.
Directions:In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on
[A] Teams have become the basic building blocks of organizations. Recruitment advertisements routinely call for “team players”. Business schools grade their students in part on their performance in group projects. Office managers knock down walls to encourage team building. Teams are as old as civilization, of course: even Jesus had 12 co-workers. But a new report by Deloitte, “Global Human Capital Trends”, based on a survey of more than 7,000 executives in over 130 countries, suggests that the fashion for teamwork has reached a new high. Almost half of those surveyed said their companies were either in the middle of restructuring or about to embark on (开始）it; and for the most part, restructuring meant putting more emphasis on teams.
[B] Companies are abandoning conventional functional departments and organising employees into cross-disciplinary teams that focus on particular products, problems or customers. These teams are gaining more power to run their own affairs. They are also spending more time working with each other rather than reporting upwards. Deloitte argues that a new organisational form is on the rise: a network of teams is replacing the conventional hierarchy (等级体制).
[C] The fashion for teams is driven by a sense that the old way of organising people is too rigid
for both the modem marketplace and the expectations of employees. Technological innovation places greater value on agility (灵活性).John Chambers, chairman of Cisco Systems Inc., a worldwide leader in electronics products, says that “we compete against market transitions (过渡)，not competitors. Product transitions used to take five or seven years; now they take one or two. ” Digital technology also makes it easier for people to co-ordinate their activities without resorting to hierarchy. The “millennials” (千禧一代) who will soon make up half the workforce in rich countries were raised from nursery school onwards to work in groups.
[D] The fashion for teams is also spreading from the usual corporate suspects (such as GE and IBM) to some more unusual ones. The Cleveland Clinic, a hospital operator, has reorganised its medical staff into teams to focus on particular treatment areas; consultants, nurses and others collaborate closely instead of being separated by speciality (专业)and rank. The US Army has gone the same way. In his book, “Team of Teams' General Stanley McChrystal describes how the army‟s hierarchical structure hindered its operations during the early stages of the Iraq war. His solution was to learn something from the insurgents it was fighting: decentralise authority to self-organising teams.
[E] A good rule of thumb is that as soon as generals and hospital administrators jump on a management bandwagon, it is time to ask questions. Leigh Thompson of Kellogg School of Management in Illinois warns that, „Teams are not always the answer—teams may provide insight, creativity and knowledge in a way that a person working independently cannot; but teamwork may also lead to confusion, delay and poor decision-making.” The late Richard Hackman of Harvard University once argued, “I have no question that when you have a team, the possibility exists that it will generate magic, producing something extraordinary... But don‟t count on it.”
[F] Hackman (who died in 2013) noted that teams are hampered by problems of co-ordination and motivation that chip away at the benefits of collaboration. High-flyers forced to work in teams may beundervalued and free-riders empowered. Groupthink may be unavoidable. In a study of 120 teams of senior executives, he discovered that less than 10% of their supposed members agreed on who exactly was on the team. If it is hard enough to define a team‟s membership, agreeing on its purpose is harder still.
[G] Profound changes in the workforce are making teams trickier to manage. Teams work best if their members have a strong common culture. This is hard to achieve when, as is now the case in many big firms, a large proportion of staff are temporary contractors. Teamwork improves with time: America‟s National Transportation Safety Board found that 73% of the incidents in its civil-aviation database occurred on a crew‟s first day of flying together. However, as Amy Edmondson of Harvard points out, organisations increasingly use “team” as a verb rather than a noun: they form teams for specific purposes and then quickly disband them.
[H] The least that can be concluded from this research is that companies need to think harder about managing teams. They need to rid their minds of sentimentalism (感情用事)：the most successful teams have leaders who are able to set an overall direction and take immediate action. They need to keep teams small and focused: giving in to pressure to be more “inclusive” is a guarantee of dysfunction. Jeff Bezos, Amazon‟s boss, says that “If I see more than two pizzas for lunch, the team is too big.” They need to immunize teams against group-think: Hackman argued that the best ones contain “deviants” (离经叛道者）who are willing to do something that maybe upsetting to others.
[I] A new study of 12,000 workers in 17 countries by Steelcase, a furniture-maker which also does consulting, finds that the best way to ensure employees are “engaged” is to give them more control over where and how they do their work―which may mean liberating them from having to do everything in collaboration with others.
[J] However, organisations need to learn something bigger than how to manage teams better: they need to be in the habit of asking themselves whether teams are the best tools for the job. Teambuilding skills are in short supply: Deloitte reports that only 12%of the executives they contacted feel they understand the way people work together in networks and only 21% feel confident in their ability to build cross-functional teams. Loosely managed teams can become hotbeds of distraction―employees routinely complain that they can‟t get their work done because they are forced to spend too much time in meetings or compelled to work in noisy offices. Even in the age of open-plan offices and social networks some work is best left to the individual. 注意：此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。
36. Successful team leaders know exactly where the team should go and are able to take prompt
37. Decentralisation of authority was also found to be more effective in military operations.
38. In many companies, the conventional form of organisation is giving way to a network of teams.
39. Members of poorly managed teams are easily distracted from their work.
Teamwork is most effective when team members share the same culture.
41. According to a report by Deloitte, teamwork is becoming increasingly popular among
42. Some team members find it hard to agree on questions like membership and the team‟s purpose.
43. Some scholars think teamwork may not always be reliable, despite its potential to work wonders.
44. To ensure employees‟ commitment, it is advisable to give them more flexibility as to
whereand how they work.
45. Product transitions take much less time now than in the past.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2with a single line through the centre. Passage One
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
The Shoppers in the UK are spending less money on toilet paper to save money, research has shown.
Penny-pinching UK consumers choose cheaper products from discounters such as Aldi and Lidl rather than luxury alternatives.
This has wiped 6% off the value of the soft tissue paper market in the UK. It has shrunk from £1.19 billion in 2011 to £1.12 billion in 2015,according to a new report from market research company Mintel. Furthermore, the future of the market looks far from rosy, with sales expected to fall further to £1.11 billion in 2016.
In the last year alone, despite an increase in the UK population and a subsequent rise in the number of households, sales of toilet paper fell by 2%, with the average household reducing their toilet roll spending from £43 in 2014 to £41 in 2015.
Overall, almost three in five people say they try to limit their usageof paper—including facial tissue and kitchen roll―to save money. “Strength，softness and thickness remain the leading indicators of toilet paper quality, with just a small proportion of consumers preferring more luxurious alternatives, such as those with flower patterns of perfume,said Mintel analyst Jack Duckett. ''These extra features are deemed unnecessary by the majority of shoppers, which probably reflects how these types of products are typically more expensive than regular toilet paper, even when on special offer.”
While consumers are spending less on toilet paper, they remain fussy―in theory at least—when it comes to paper quality. Top of Britons‟ toilet paper wish list is softness (57%) followed by strength (45%) and thickness (36%).
One in 10 buyers rand toilet rolls made from recycled paper among their top considerations, highlighting how overall the environment is much less of a consideration for shoppers than product quality. In a challenge for manufacturers, 81% of paper product users said they would consider buying recycled toilet tissue if it were comparable in quality to standard paper.
46. The market sales of toilet paper have decreased because ____________ .
A) Britons have cut their spending on it
B) its prices have gone up over the years C) its quality has seen marked improvement D) Britons have developed the habit of saving
47. What does the author think of the future of the tissue paper market in the UK?
A) It will expend in time. B) It will remain gloomy.
C) It will experience ups and downs. D)
It will recover as population grows.
48. What does Jack Duckett say about toilet paper?
A) Special offers would promote its sales. B) Consumers are loyal to certain brands.
C) Luxurious features add much to the price. D) Consumers have a variety to choose from.
49.What do we learn about Britons concerning toilet paper?
A) They are particular about the quality of toilet paper. B) They emphasize the strength of toilet paper the most. C) They prefer cheap toilet paper to recycled toilet paper. D) They reject using toilet paper with unnecessary features.
50.What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A) More and more Britons buy recycled toiler paper to protect the environment. B) Toilet paper manufacturers are facing a great challenge in promoting its sales. C) Toilet paper manufacturers compete with one another to improve product quality. D) Environmental protection is not much of a concern when Britons buy toilet paper.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
“One of the reasons I find this topic very interesting is because my mom was a smoker when I was younger，” says Lindson-Hawley, who studies tobacco and health at the University of Oxford.
By studying about 700 adult smokers, she found out that her mom quit the right way—by stopping abruptly and completely.
In her study, participants were randomly (随机地）assigned to two groups. One had to quit abruptly on a given day, going from about a pack a day to zero. The other cut down gradually over the course of two weeks. People in both groups used nicotine (尼古丁）patches before they quit, in addition to a second form of nicotine replacement, like gum or spray. They also had talk therapy with a nurse before and after quit day.
Six months out, more people whohad quit abruptly had stuck with it—more than one-fifth of them, compared to about one-seventh in the other group. Although these numbers appear low, it is much higher than if people try without support.
And the quit rates were particularly convincing given that before the study started, most of the people had said they‟d rather cut down gradually before quitting. “If you‟re training for a marathon, you wouldn‟t expect to turnup and just be able to run it. And I think people see that for smoking as well. They think,‘ Well， if I gradually reduce, it‟s like practice，‟” says Lindson-Hawley. But that wasn‟t the case. Instead of giving people practice, the gradual reduction likely gave them cravings (瘾）and withdrawal symptoms before they even reached quit day, which could be why fewer people in that group actually made it to that point. “Regardless of your stated preference, if you‟re ready to quit, quitting abruptly is more effective,”says Dr. Gabriela Ferreira. “When you can quote a specific number like a fifth of the patients were able to quit, that‟s compelling. It gives them the encouragement, I think, to really go for it，‟‟Ferreira says.
People rarely manage to quit the first time they try. But at least, she says, they can maximize the odds of success.
51. What does Lindson-Hawley say about her mother? A) She quit smoking with her daughter‟s help. B) She succeeded in quitting smoking abruptly. C) She was also a researcher of tobacco and health.
D) She studied the smoking patterns of adult smokers.
52.What kind of support did smokers receive to quit smoking in Lindson-Hawley‟s study? A) They were given physical training. B) They were looked after by physicians. C) They were encouraged by psychologists.
D) They were offered nicotine replacements.
53. How does Dr. Gabriela Ferreira view the result of Lindson-Hawley‟s experiment? A) It is idealized. B) It is unexpected. C) It is encouraging.
D) It is misleading.
54. The idea of “a marathon”（Line 2, Para. 5) illustrates the popular belief that quitting smoking A) is something few can accomplish B) needs some practice first C) requires a lot of patience
D) is a challenge at the beginning
55. What happens when people try to quit smoking gradually? A) They find it even more difficult. B) They are simply unable to make it. C) They show fewer withdrawal symptoms.
D) They feel much less pain in the process.
Part IV Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
26-30： F A L G E
31-35： B M K O N
46-50 D C A C B
51-55 D A A C B
The Yellow River is the third longest in Asia and thesixth longest in the world. The word “yellow” describes the perennial color of the muddy water. Originating inQinghai province, the Yellow River flows through nine provinces and finallyempties into the Bohai Sea. It is one of several rivers for China to live on.Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization and the mostprosperous region in early Chinese history. However, because of frequentdevastating floods, the river has caused many disasters. In the past fewdecades, the government has taken various measures to prevent disasters.
The growing conflict in education, especially the conflict between teachers and students, has aroused a heated discussion as to the solutions to this phenomenon. Views on the topic vary greatly among people from different walks of life. There are several things we can do based on the causes for such conflict. First, students usually don’t have a thorough understanding of how challenging and tiresome a teachers’ job could be; therefore, the school authorities could create more chances for students to experience it, say, let students be one-day teachers. Also, it is suggested that regular experience-sharing from experienced teachers and constant communication with students, particularly with those troubled ones, should be required of young novice teachers so that they can put themselves in the students’ shoes. Finally, balancing educational resources will greatly relieve the pressure on teachers and schools because they don’t need to deal with so many students at a time.
From my perspective, it is crucial that the relationship between teachers and students be improved remarkably and immediately. Only in this way can we build a harmonious society.