四六级专栏丨四六级习题集之每日一练(04.25)

商志考研英语2020-03-24 06:21:14


2018-04

25

一个今天胜过两个明天

一日一签

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2018.04.25


Section C 


Directions:  There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre


Questions46 to 50 are based on the following passage. 

 

 Nobody really knows how big Lagos is. What’s indisputable is that it’s growing very quickly. Between now and 2050, the urban population of Africa could triple. Yet cities in sub-Saharan Africa are not getting richer the way cities in the rest of the world have. Most urban Africans live in slums ( 贫民窟 ); migrants are often not much better off than they were in the countryside. Why? The immediate problem is poverty. Most of Africa is urbanising at a lower level of income than other regions of the world did. That means there’s little money around for investment that would make cities liveable and more productive. Without upgrades and new capacity, bridges, roads and power systems are unable to cope with expanding populations. With the exception of South Africa, the only light rail metro system in sub-Saharan Africa is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Traffic jam leads to expense and unpredictability, things that keep investors away. In other parts of the world, increasing agricultural productivity and industrialisation went together. More productive farmers meant there was a surplus that could feed cities; in turn, that created a pool of labour for factories. But African cities are different. They are too often built around consuming natural resources. Government is concentrated in capitals, so is the money. Most urban Africans work for a small minority of the rich, who tend to be involved in either cronyish ( 有 裙 带 关 系 的 ) businesses or politics. Since African agriculture is still broadly unproductive, food is imported, consuming a portion of revenue. So what can be done? Though African countries are poor, not all African cities are. In Lagos, foreign oil workers can pay as much as $65,000 per year in rent for a modest apartment in a safe part of town. If that income were better taxed, it might provide the revenue for better infrastructure. If city leaders were more accountable to their residents, they might favour projects designed to help them more. Yet even as new roads are built, new people arrive. When a city’s population grows by 5% a year, it is difficult to keep up.



解析

【全文翻译】


没有人真正知道拉各斯有多大。无可争辩的是它正在迅速发展。从现在到 2050 年,非洲的城市人口会增加 两倍。然而撒哈拉以南地区的非洲城市却没有像世界其他地方的城市那样变得更加富裕。大部分非洲城市居民都 居住在贫民窟里,移民往往并没有比在农村里好多少。为什么? 目前的问题是贫穷。非洲大部分城市化区域的收入水平都低于世界其他地区,这意味着用于投资以使城市变 得更宜居、更高产的资金很少。没有设施升级和新的承载力,桥梁、道路和电力系统都不能满足日益增长的人口 需求。除了南非,撒哈拉以南非洲地区唯一的轻轨地铁系统位于埃塞俄比亚的亚迪斯亚贝巴。交通堵塞造成的费 用增加和不可预测性让投资者望而却步。 在世界其他地区,农业生产力和工业化水平的提高同时进行。农民生产力更高意味着有富余可供应给城市。 反过来,这又为工厂创造了大量的劳动力。但是非洲的城市却不一样。它们往往建立在消耗自然资源的基础之上。 政府集中在首都,资金也是。大多数非洲城市居民为少数富人工作,而这些富人往往来自有裙带关系的企业或有 政治关系。因非洲普遍生产力低下,食物主要靠进口,这耗费了一部分收入。 那么可以做些什么呢?尽管非洲国家比较穷,但并非所有非洲城市都是如此。在拉各斯,外来石油工人为在 城镇安全地区租住一间普通公寓,每年会支付 65000 美金,如果这项收入被很好地征税,它可能会为改善基础设 施提供资金。如果城市领导对其居民更负责的话,他们可能会倾向于对居民更有益的项目。然而,即使新道路建成, 新的人口又会增加。当一个城市的人口每年增加 5% 时,基础设施想要跟上这个节奏就很难了。


【答案】



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