六级阅读课外积累|假如给我90分钟黑暗

普特英语听力网2020-06-29 16:47:20


Through Darkness

The Dialogue in the Dark exhibition in Israel aims to bridge the understanding between sighted and blind people. BBC Future visits the museum to learn about the ways the brain can adapt to life without vision.

I know there isn’t one dot of light, but I frantically scan the pitch-black area surrounding me out of habit nonetheless.

exhibition展览|adapt to适应|vision视觉|frantically疯狂地|pitch-black漆黑的|nonetheless尽管

As I shuffle slowly through the carpeted hallway, clumsily swinging my long cane in a small arch the way the guide instructed a minute ago, I can hear the sounds of exotic birds, the rustle of wind through the trees and a babbling brook just around the corner. After stumbling through a doorway, the flat carpet suddenly gives way to a hill covered in rocks. The breeze hits my face and the cacophony of an artificial forest is everywhere.


shuffle慢吞吞地走|clumsily笨拙地|cane手杖|exotic外来的|cacopony不和谐音|artificial人工的


“Okay kids! We’re in the nature now. What can you find?” says our guide, 45-year-old Meair Mattityahu, who lost his sight shortly after birth.

Now that I know there are obstacles, I’m worried that if I take another step I’m going to walk directly into a tree.

“I found a tree!” shouts an 11-year old girl visiting with her family from New York. I’m still lagging behind the group, standing a few feet from the entrance on the bumpy mound that imitates earth, trying to get my bearings.

This is just the first room of seven at the Dialogue in the Dark exhibition at the Children’s Museum in Holon, Israel, more commonly referred to as the “blind museum.”


obstacle障碍|lag behind落后于|bumpy颠簸的|mound土堆|

bearing方位


The World Health Organization estimates that 38 million people are blind around the world, with an additional 110 million having low vision and at great risk of becoming blind. Like the dark dining concept, where visitors eat in a restaurant that is in complete darkness, this exhibition, which started in Germany in 1988 and has franchises in several countries, is designed to bridge understanding between sighted and blind people, and give visitors a taste of what it feels like to be blind.

Some people become so disoriented and unfocused that they can’t tell left from right

World Health Organization世界卫生组织=WHO|bridge沟通|disoriented分不清方向的|unfocused不集中的

Mattityahu says that he’s witnessed all kinds of initial reactions to the exhibit. Some people panic, some start screaming as if others won’t be able to hear them in the dark, others laugh. At least one has fainted. “I’ll tell them to use their left hand to find the wall, and they can’t do it.”

By the end of our 90-minute tour, we will have ridden on a boat, wandered through a house, walked down a public street, shopped for fruit and vegetables at a grocery store and drank soda in a bar, all in complete darkness. Though it’s terrifying at first, it is also enlightening. About half-an-hour in, I find that my other senses are more focused, primarily hearing and touch, including the telling bumps beneath my cane, and it becomes increasingly easy and more natural to navigate through each room.

initial初始的|faint晕倒|grocery store杂货铺|enlightening有启发作用的|bump隆起物|navigate导航

The more a blind subject shows activity in their visual brain, the better they are at some auditory processes. 

Our brains are, after all, enormously adaptable to make the most of what they are given. For sighted people, the areas of the brain’s cortex devoted to visual processing have more neurons than those processing hearing and touch combined, allowing our eyes to quickly analyze our surroundings. In the absence of sight, however, our others senses may pick up the slack. Research on blindness and neuroplasticity have even shown that being blind can change the way the brain processes information, with studies demonstrating that early-blind individuals use their occipital cortex in auditory, verbal processing and/or tactile processing.

“A lot of work has shown that blind people recruit occipital areas to process non-visual stimuli, including hearing and touch,” says Patrice Voss, a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University.  

recruit使用|occipital枕骨的|stimuli刺激|visual视觉的|auditory听觉的|adaptable适应的|cortex皮质|neuron神经元|slack松弛的|neuroplasticity神经可塑性|tactile触觉的


Voss’s research has shown that early-blind people outperform sighted people at locating sounds on a horizontal plane when limited to one ear, while other studies have shown blind people outperform sighted people on other nonvisual tasks like recognising voices and verbal memory.


outperform胜过|horizontal水平的|plane平面



Though people who lose their sight later in life still exhibit behavioral changes, Voss says that early or congenitally blind individuals typical benefit from more reorganization of visual areas than people who lose their sight in adulthood. 

“Our brain is less plastic as we age, so there’s less room for change. But early experience also drives the connections that our brain forms,” he says. “If you’re deprived of visual input early on you will likely become more accustomed to processing non-visual input within the visual areas.”


congenitally天生地|adulthood成年|plastic有可塑性的



参考译文:


       在以色列,有这样一家特殊的博物馆-在这里,视力正常者可以体验盲人的生活。设计师设计这个博物馆,旨在让人们更多了解视力残障人士的生活。快来跟随笔者的脚步,走进这个一片漆黑的盲人博物馆吧-

       尽管事前已经做好心理准备,当我真的置身于盲人博物馆,我还是感到一片茫然。

       我沿着地毯,慢慢的在走廊里挪移,笨拙的挥着长长的手杖,慢吞吞的前行。耳边的世界如此清晰:鸟儿的鸣叫,风穿过叶间的沙沙声响,还有角落处小溪潺潺的流动。走了一小段路之后,平缓的地毯突然多了几处凹凸,原来是下面隐藏的石块。微风轻抚我的脸,在这片人造的森林里,所有的声音都是如此不和谐。

我们的导游Meair Mattityahu今年已经45岁,从一出生开始,就没能亲眼看看这个世界。他说:“嘿,孩子们!我们现在就深处大自然。你发现了什么呢?”

       我知道这树林里到处都是“危机”。要是我冒冒然踏出一步,真觉得自己会直接撞树上。

 “我发现一棵树!”一个11岁的小姑娘叫嚷着。她是和父母一起从纽约跑来参观的。我还是落在队伍后面,没走几步。脚下是凹凸不平的土地,是馆内人员用来仿真土壤的杰作。而我现在还有些摸不着方向。

这还仅仅只是展览中七个房间的其中之一。展览是在以色列霍伦的儿童博物馆内举办的,而人们通常直接把它称作“盲人博物馆”

据世界卫生组织估计,全球有3800万盲人,还有1亿1000万的人有视力障碍,极有可能变盲。盲人博物馆的设计理念和盲人餐厅相似。1988年,盲人博物馆诞生于德国,而后又开设在一些国家,意图让视力正常人士来感知盲人的世界。

很多人初来盲人博物馆时都惊惶失措,甚至无法辨别方向。

Mattityahu见证了游客们的各色反应-有人惊恐不已,有人甚至开始尖叫,还有人连带着耳朵都失灵了,也有一些人大笑。还有不少人在博物馆里昏过去。“我让他们左手扶着墙来找方向,他们都做不到。” Mattityahu如是说。

“盲眼之行”时常90分钟。在参观的最后一部分,我们会乘船穿过一所房子,走到公共街区的杂货店买水果蔬菜,在饮品吧喝苏打水-所有这一切都将在一片漆黑中进行。黑暗使人恐惧,却也给人以启示。在这一个半小时里,我的听觉和触觉灵敏了不少,柱着手杖,我可以清晰的辨别地上的凸起、凹陷,在各个房间里也更加穿梭自如。

盲人的听觉往往更发达。

我们的大脑非常擅长于适应外界环境。对于视力正常的人来说,脑皮质中负责视觉方面的神经数量更多,以帮助我们用眼睛来迅速的分析周边环境。而视力不正常的人则恰恰相反。研究发现,眼盲者大脑处理信息的方式都与常人不同。早盲者会用枕骨皮层来处理听觉、语言或触觉信息。

麦吉尔大学(加拿大著名研究型大学)博士后Patrice Voss 称:“许多研究表明,盲人会用枕骨区域来处理非视觉刺激,包括痛觉和触觉。”

Voss发现,当仅能使用一只耳朵的时候,在水平面内,盲人对声音的定位更为准确。此外,盲人在一些非视觉项目,如辨别声音和进行声音记忆,表现都优于视力正常者。

研究还发现,尽管在成年期才眼盲的人,行为上也会有所改变,但是先天有眼疾或是在早年眼盲的人,还是更能适应眼盲的生活。

“人的大脑的可塑性会随年龄的增加变得越来越低。当然,早期的经历也会对大脑起到促进作用。如果你在早年不幸盲眼,那么你可能更好的处理非视觉信息。”


[备考6级的童鞋,在做真题的同时,也不要忘记课外阅读素材的积累哟。本文节选自BBC新闻,难度中等偏上,适合备考6级的童鞋作为课外素材,进行一些单词的积累。文中出现的一些科技、医学类用词,同样是考验各位童鞋在阅读中碰到不会的词语,联系上下文,以进行解题。在6级阅读中,文化类是不可错过的题型。普特考试小助手也会定期为各位宝宝更新你们的阅读素材库哦~尽请期待!]


(来源:BBC 翻译:实习编辑荣格



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