四六级写译预测+20170611 #长难句每日一句#

石雷鹏老师2019-10-31 09:47:03

四六级写译预测戳下面

???

四六级最后这几天该如何复习

四级翻译5大主题+解题思路+话题词预测

四级写作必备范文+话题预测

六级写作必备范文+话题词预测

六级翻译考前经典必备+话题预测


每天利用碎片时间10分钟


学习分析长难句  动笔抄写效果更佳

四六级考研复习中的困惑

欢迎长按二维码分答提问

【前文回顾】

Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work.

自亚里士多德的时代起,对普遍原理的探求就一直是科学事业的主要特征。在某些方面,寻找事物的共性也正是科学的定义/内涵。牛顿的运动定律和达尔文的进化论都是把很多不同现象纳入到一个单独框架来解释。

In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything—a single generative equation for all we see. It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal. This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too.

在物理学上,有一种方法是将这种追求统一的冲动发挥到极点,它寻找一种万能的理论,即一种单一的能够解释我们所能看到的一切的通用公式。然而,考虑到/鉴于这样的一种理论所涉及的维度和范畴,它是否还算是一种简化就变得越来越说不清楚了。尽管如此,寻找万物的统一性仍然是一个主要目标。很久以来,在自然科学这种趋势在社会科学中也很明显。

Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification, for if all humans share common origins, it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features. To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.

在这里,达尔文主义似乎提供了一个正当理由:如果所有的人类都有共同的起源,那么文化差异能够追寻到更有限的开端,这一假设好像也是合理的。正如人类令人眼花缭乱的多种求偶仪式都能被认为是性别选择的某种模式一样,世界上的语言、音乐、社会习惯和宗教习俗甚至历史都可能由某些统一的特点所驾驭。从共有特征中滤出独有特性,这可能使我们能够理解复杂的文化行为是如何出现的,并从进化或认知角度理解什么引导了它的走向。

That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language.

至少,这是希望所在。但是今天网上发布的一篇语言特征的对比研究(为这一想法)提供了现实上的检验。在这之前的两个寻找语言共性的尝试的基础上,奥克兰大学的Russell Gray以及他的同事们对语法的演变进行了思考。

The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are born with an innate language-acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly.

这些艰辛的尝试中最著名的一个是由Noam Chomsky所提出的,他认为人类有一种与生俱来的语言习得能力,这种能力支配通用语法。一些语言生成规则就足以揭开某种语言的全部基础结构,这就是儿童学习语言如此之快的原因。

The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality, identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages, which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints.

其次是Joshua Greenberg的(尝试),他采用了更经验主义的方法去研究语言中的普遍性,鉴别出许多语言所共有的特征(尤其是在语序方面),而这些特征被认为代表了认知约束所产生的偏好。


【今日长难句】

Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.

难度不大,请看文字解析即可。


【结构解析】

1. 句子主干为主谓宾宾补结构,即:Gray and his colleagues / have put /them to the best;其中them 指代尚未中的Noam Chomsky和Joshua Greenberg.

2. by examining four family tress 为方式状语;that between them represent more than 2,000 languages 为定语从句,修饰four family tress. 


【词的处理】

colleague / ˈkɔli:ɡ; NAmE ˈkɑ:- / n. 同事

family tree家谱;家系图;系谱图

represent / ˌrepriˈzent / vt. 代表


【参考译文】

Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.

Gray和他的同事们通过分析四个语系树谱图对这两种理论进行了检验,这些树谱图呈现了2000多种语言。


【明日长难句】

Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations.



最后的二维码不是给您要钱

只是提醒你

都人在背后辛苦劳作的结果

而您在免费享用

懂得珍惜和感恩很重要

??

【开火车记单词系列】

音节拆分法背单词      

跟我一起背单词

来顺便背几个单词吧


【关于四六级】

老担心过不了,有了阴影,怎么办?

学习时总无法集中注意力,怎么办?

啃单词书,背了忘怎么办?

临近四六级,题越做错的越多,怎么办?

关于“一带一路”,你应该知道的

考了3次四级,真题答案都记住了,还是没过,怎么办?


【解忧系列】

舍友也考研,常给我冷脸,影响我心情,怎么办?

跟男票冷战,严重影响学习,怎么办?

心情不好时,来这看看

如何面对金钱和美色的诱惑?

心情不佳,何以解忧?

如何确定自己的人生方向?

不喜欢自己的大学和所学的专业,怎么办?


【交友系列】

身边人嘴欠,想抽他,怎么办?

和舍友三观不同,怎么办?


【关于考研】


???

考研遭遇实习,怎么平衡?

学习遭遇高原期,怎么办?

考研学习任务太重,喘不过气来,怎么办?

暑假在家准备考研,还是学校更好?

考研跟同学考同校,ta好厉害,我很慌张

我想考清北复交,身边的人说我异想天开

去年考上研究生,现在不想上了

考研要不要租房,要不要找个伴

听说考研北京的学校压外地学生的分?我都不敢考了

将毕业,工作还是考研?那个更好

学艺术,考研是不是没用


Copyright © 北京英语四六级培训联盟@2017