四级课文译文语言点及习题答案|第二单元

纽扣课堂2020-06-29 15:48:42

Danger! Books may change your life

讲义 Unit 2 A good read


Para. 1

1. fall into: 落入,陷入

2. pick up: 捡起②学会;③得(病)

3. be about to do sth.: be going to do sth. 将要做某事

4. from the point of view of sb.: from sb.s point of view, from ones viewpoint, as far as sb. is concerned, when it comes to sb., in ones opinion 在某人看来

5. dream of doing sth./sth.: (做)某

Para. 2

6. neglect: v. 疏忽②无视,忽视 (neglect强调疏忽,忘了)

近义ignore: v. ①不顾,不理会;②忽视 (ignore强调主观上不顾)

Para. 3

7. provide sb. with sth.: provide sth. to sb., provide sth. for sb. 向某人提供某物

8. interact with: communicate with 与…交流;互动

9. peace and quiet: 安静

10. have sth. in common with sb.: 与某人有共同点

11. look beyond the immediate surroundings: 超越周遭的环境

Para. 4

12. take the trouble to do sth.: 不怕麻烦去做某事 

13. wonder at: 看见…而惊奇/惊叹/惊讶

14. range from  to : 在…范围内变化

15. reflect on: 仔细考虑   reflect on the other lives: 思考别样的人生

16. once we begin to read.: once在此处引导时间状语从句,意为“一旦”。

Para. 5

17. exclude: v. 排斥②把…排除在外,不包括 excluding: prep. 除…之外

反义include: v. 包括;包含    including: prep. 包括…

18. confront: v. face 正视;面对 ■be confronted with: be faced with 面临…

Para. 6

19. be influential in: have an influence/effect on, have impact on …有影响

20. all the way through (to): 一直到…;一直到底

21. be lined with: 沿…排列  lined with books: 摆满了书

22.seek out: find out, figure out (下决心)找到

Para. 7

23. a series of: a succession of, a chain of 一系列

24. intend to do sth.: tend to do sth., want to do sth. 想要做某事,打算做某事

形近搭配be intended for: 而准备

25. get out of confusion and meaninglessness: 摆脱困惑和无意义

26. (be) immersed in: 深陷于

Para. 9

27. home run: (棒球运动中的)本垒打,全垒打

28. induce: v. cause, bring about, lead to, result in 导致,引起,促使

反义 deduce: v. 推论,演绎出

词根 in (into) + duce (lead)→引入→导致,引起

同根 deduce: de (down) + duce (lead)→引出→推论,演绎出

introduce: intro (between) + duce (lead)→引入其中→介绍

Para. 10

29. for the first time: 第一次,首次

30. time after time again: 一次又一次,多次

31. in one setting: at a time, at a/one stroke 一口气,一鼓作气,一次,一下子

32. await: vt. wait for 等待 (注意await是及物动词,无需介词for)

Para. 11

33. Such is the power of reading.: 这就是读书的力量。

解析:本句的主语为特殊的代词such。详见P28,句型练习3


Key to Exercises in Active reading (1)

3 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1. c  2. b 3. a  4. c  5. b 6. a

Dealing with unfamiliar words

4 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1. exclude   2. neglect   3. cite 

4. withstand   5. normally   6. await

5 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 4.

(1) excluding  (2) withstand  (3) Normally

(4) cite   (5) awaited  (6) neglect

6 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

1. interact   2. confront   3. likewise   4. influential

5. induce   6. dialect   7. mysterious

7 Answer the questions about the words.

1. b 2. a  3. b 4. a  5. a  6. a  7. a  8. b

Reading and interpreting

8 Check () the writer’s main purpose in writing the passage.

 3

Language in use

word formation: -ous

1 Write the adjectives which describe:

1. famous  2. curious 3. envious  4. mountainous  5. voluminous

infinitive / gerund as the subject of a sentence (不定式或动名词作主语)

2 Complete the sentences using infinitive or gerund as the subject. Usually both forms are possible, but you should be able to justify your choice.

1 Getting up (To express an everyday activity)

2 To write a best-seller (This is a bit more abstract or a far-away grand idea)

3 Forgetting (To express a normal activity for many people)

4 To spend (Use the more abstract form for an important idea)

5 To be or not to be (In Shakespeare this can be interpreted as a grand idea, so he uses the formal way; if you say, ‘Being or not being…’ is may be more immediate and seems normal – but in Hamlet the situation is not normal)

such is / are …

3 Rewrite the sentences using such is / are … 这就是

1. The reader thinks the writer is speaking directly to them. Such is the power of good writing.

2. You can’t put Salmon Fishing in the Yemen down even for a moment. Such is the charm of the novel.

3. You may end up living in another country. Such is the pleasure of travel.

4. You may feel you want to leave before the end. Such is the sense of confusion in this film.

5. Much of the meaning is lost. Such is the enormity of the difficulties of translation.

if / whether it be … 是否

4 Rewrite the sentences using if / whether it be …

1. Ask yourself carefully whether it be the right time to start this kind of project.

2. I very much doubt if this be the first edition of Dr Johnson’s Dictionary.

3. I am not sure if it be common knowledge that Arthur Miller thought like this.

4. Perhaps we should inquire whether it be necessary to produce any documents when making an application.

5. I doubt if it be the right way to tackle the problem.

5 Read the explanations of the words. Answer the questions.

1 confront This word usually means to deal with a difficult situation.

(a) This could be a long list! I’d say: global warming, pollution, water shortages, extreme weather conditions, local military conflicts, poverty, famine and hunger, unemployment, to name only a few.

(b) Not today, but a few days ago I was confronted by someone asking for money – which I didn’t like at all.

(c) The problem that my grandfather is elderly and has Alzheimer’s disease: He needs constant care because he forgets ordinary things. It is difficult for my parents and for me because we all take turns to look after him. I realized what this was really like when I had to look after him for a weekend when my parents were away, but I discovered I have a lot more patience now. So perhaps this crisis has helped us to develop some good qualities, although it is actually a very difficult time for all of us.

2 idle This word usually means not being used, lazy, or without any real reason or purpose.

(a) They don’t like doing work or other things that they should do but which they don’t like doing.

(b) The machinery is not being used.

(c) Not really, they just have a slight curiosity to see what the book is, but they have no real interest.

(d) No, you don’t because you know that the threat has no real purpose.

3 tackle This word usually means to challenge someone or something, or to make an attempt to deal with a problem.

(a) Well. I suppose there are several issues which need to be tackled, including rising prices and employment in some places, or some social problems in a few areas.

(b) I am inclined to be direct and simply ask them about their opinions and ideas. I think they will tell me honestly if they believe I am really interested in what they think.

(c) You have managed to get the ball away from them so that your team can keep the ball for a moment.

4 withstand This word usually means to be strong enough not to be harmed or destroyed by something, or to be able to deal with a difficult situation.

(a) To withstand a direct attack you need strong defences which are well placed.

(b) To withstand the cold in winter, you need thick, warm clothes.

(c) Yes, I can. Actually, our teachers generally give us our assignments at intervals and we usually know well in advance what we should. So as long as you get on with the work (and don’t leave it until the last minute!) the pressure is not too bad and we can manage.

6 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.

(几处倒装句应灵活处理,以体现原文语气。every last book the man has written 等于 all the books he has written。注意这段话的逻辑关系。If he is anything, he is a man of…一句中的 if 从句起强调作用,说明他不是一个书生或思想家,而是一个行动家。此处需灵活翻译。)

7 Translate the paragraphs into English.

It was not until after he had graduated from university and started to work that Zhang Lei became aware of the pleasure of reading. Reflecting on his undergraduate studies, he lamented that he, unlike his classmates who had immersed themselves in various interesting books they were able to lay hands on from the library or bookshop, had only read textbooks, none of which was really worthwhile, or could be read in one sitting. He was deprived of the privilege of gaining access to the writers’ fantastic worlds through the windows their books have opened, so to speak.

Now he has become an avid and omnivorous reader. It is as if he wants to make up for those marvelous books he hadn’t had a chance to read in his university days. So far, in his spare time, he has read several hundreds of books, including novels, biographies and travel notes. He realizes that books can not only reveal to him the vista of a hopeful future and help him withstand stresses and strains, they can also help him clear up some misconceptions and discover the true meaning of life. 


Active reading (1)参考译文

危险!书可能会改变你的人生

刘易斯·卡罗尔书中的爱丽丝不小心掉到兔子洞里,在那里发现了一个神奇的仙境。当我们打开一本书时,我们也会像爱丽丝那样走进一个全新的世界。我们能从一个年长人的角度,或通过一个孩子的眼睛来观察生活;我们可以周游世界,遍访现实生活中从没想过要访问的国家和文化;我们可以体验未曾经历过的事情,这些事情有时令人不安,也许引人入胜;可能是不愉快的也可能是令人痛苦的,但无论如何都至少能把我们从现实世界中解放出来。

英国诗人威廉·考珀(1731–1800)说,“变化是生活的调味品,它让生活变得有滋有味。”虽然他没有说在什么地方以及怎样才能找到变化,但我们知道他说得对。我们知道我们生活在一个充满变化与差异的世界里,我们知道人们的生活方式各不相同,人们过日子的方式不同,做不同工作,有不同信仰,持不同观点,有不同的风俗习惯,操不同语言。通常,我们不知道这些差异的大小,但一旦发生了不平常的事情并引起了我们的注意,这种变化或差异与其说是机会,毋宁说是威胁。

读书让我们能够安全地享受和庆贺这种变化与差异,为我们提供成长的机会。在家里安详平和的环境中与他人的生活互动,这是阅读小说才享有的特权。我们甚至感觉到——哪怕只是在那一瞬间——我们和异文化读者的共同点要多于我们和家门口随便碰到的一个人的共同点。我们学会把目光移出我们周围的环境,投向天边,去领略一下异域山水。

如果我们怀疑读书是否能给我们力量的话,我们就应该麻烦自己去一趟当地的图书馆或书店,或者,如果我们足够幸运的话,从家里的书架上取一本书来读一读。我们会惊奇于古今小说的标题所创造出来的壮观景象:约翰·斯坦贝克的《愤怒的葡萄》、约翰·欧文的《第四只手》、亚历山大·索尔仁尼琴的《癌症病房》、厄内斯特·海明威的《丧钟为谁而鸣》、格雷厄姆·格林的《哈瓦那特派员》、奥黛丽·尼芬格的《时间旅行者的妻子》、保罗·托迪的《到也门钓鲑鱼》。一旦开始阅读,我们就必须思考我们在书中读到的别样人生。

每一本书都有自己的语言、方言、词汇和语法。我们不见得总能理解其中的每一个字、句,但不管我们是痴迷其中,还是觉得被排除在外,我们的情感被调动起来了。尽管在地理上有一定的距离,但其他民族、其他文化未必就离我们那么遥远。在书里我们可能遇见生活在不同气候、有不同信仰、来自不同民族的人。即便是住在同一条街上的邻居,我们都有可能只在书上相识。

小时候,在我们刚刚能听讲的时候,书对我们的生活方式就产生了很大的影响。从父母给孩子读的睡前故事一直到成年后家中摆满书柜的客厅,书界定了我们的人生。英国作家E. M. 福斯特(1879–1970)暗示书对我们具有另一种更加神秘的支配力。他写道:“我认为能影响我们的书籍是那些我们已经准备要读的书,它们只是在我们已经选定的道路上走得比我们更远一些而已。”合适的书好像自己就会在恰当的时候找到我们,出现在我们面前,而不是我们去寻找那本书。

美国修士、牧师及作家托马斯·默顿(1915–1968)曾经被记者一连串地问了7 个问题:说出你最近读完的3 本书;你正在读的3 本书;你打算要读的书;对你有影响的书,并解释为什么;一本每人都要读的书,并解释为什么。关于对他有影响的书,他列出了《威廉·布莱克诗集》、古希腊思想家和作家写的各种戏剧以及一些宗教作品。当被问及这些书为何会影响他时,他回答说:“这些书——还有其他类似的书籍——帮助我找到了人生的真谛,它们把我从生活的困惑和空虚中解脱出来。销售就是一切的文化培育了人的需求和被动,而那种生活就深陷其中。”

那么,你又会如何回答这些问题呢?

1947 年,克里夫顿·费迪曼发明了“全垒打书籍”这个词。当一个棒球手打出一个全垒打时,因为击球有力、打得远,他有时间跑完整个棒球场内的四个垒,不仅自己得分,而且帮其他各个垒的跑垒者得分,这是棒球赛里最有趣和最开心的事情。同样,一本“全垒打书籍”指的不是儿童的第一次读书的经历,而是指他们第一次读到一本能给他们带来极大的愉悦和满足感的书、痴迷到手不释卷的经历。对世界上数以亿计的儿童来说,“全垒打书籍”的最典型的例子就是《哈利波特》系列小说。

作为成年人,我们总在寻找自己的“全垒打书籍”,不是第一次,而是一次又一次地寻找。所有一口气读完一本小说的人都会记得那种令人期待的愉悦和满足感,并会焦急、固执、有时甚至疯狂地寻求重复体验这种感觉。我们想周游另一世界、会见不同国家不同民族的人、经历别样人生并自我反省,我们无法遏制这样的渴求。

危险!书可能会改变你的人生。这就是读书的力量。





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