infinitive / gerund as the subject of a sentence(不定式或动名词作主语)
2 Complete the sentences using infinitive or gerund as the subject. Usually both forms are possible, butyou should be able to justify your choice.
1 Getting up (To express an everyday activity)
2 To write a best-seller (This is a bit more abstract or a far-away grand idea)
3 Forgetting (To express a normal activity for many people)
4 To spend (Use the more abstract form for an important idea)
5 To be or not to be (In Shakespeare this can be interpreted as a grand idea, so he uses the formal way; if you say, ‘Being ornot being…’ is may be more immediate and seems normal – but in Hamlet the situation is not normal)
such is / are …
3 Rewrite the sentences using such is / are …这就是…
1. The reader thinks the writer is speaking directly to them. Such is the power of good writing.
2. You can’t put Salmon Fishing in the Yemen down even for a moment. Such is the charm of the novel.
3. You may end up living in another country. Such is the pleasure of travel.
4. You may feel you want to leave before the end. Such is the sense of confusion in this film.
5. Much of the meaning is lost. Such is the enormity of the difficulties of translation.
if / whether it be …是否…
4 Rewrite the sentences using if / whether it be …
1. Ask yourself carefully whether it be the right time to start this kind of project.
2. I very much doubt if this be the first edition of Dr Johnson’s Dictionary.
3. I am not sure if it be common knowledge that Arthur Miller thought like this.
4. Perhaps we should inquire whether it be necessary to produce any documents when making anapplication.
5. I doubt if it be the right way to tackle the problem.
5 Read the explanations of the words. Answer the questions.
1 confront This word usually means to deal with a difficult situation.
(a) This could be a long list! I’d say: global warming, pollution, water shortages, extreme weatherconditions, local military conflicts, poverty, famine and hunger, unemployment, to name only a few.
(b) Not today, but a few days ago I was confronted by someone asking for money – which I didn’t likeat all.
(c) The problem that my grandfather is elderly and has Alzheimer’s disease: He needs constant carebecause he forgets ordinary things. It is difficult for my parents and for me because we all take turnsto look after him. I realized what this was really like when I had to look after him for a weekendwhen my parents were away, but I discovered I have a lot more patience now. So perhaps this crisishas helped us to develop some good qualities, although it is actually a very difficult time for allof us.
2 idle This word usually means not being used, lazy, or without any real reason or purpose.
(a) They don’t like doing work or other things that they should do but which they don’t like doing.
(b) The machinery is not being used.
(c) Not really, they just have a slight curiosity to see what the book is, but they have no real interest.
(d) No, you don’t because you know that the threat has no real purpose.
3 tackle This word usually means to challenge someone or something, or to make an attempt to deal witha problem.
(a) Well. I suppose there are several issues which need to be tackled, including rising prices andemployment in some places, or some social problems in a few areas.
(b) I am inclined to be direct and simply ask them about their opinions and ideas. I think they will tellme honestly if they believe I am really interested in what they think.
(c) You have managed to get the ball away from them so that your team can keep the ball for amoment.
4 withstand This word usually means to be strong enough not to be harmed or destroyed by something,or to be able to deal with a difficult situation.
(a) To withstand a direct attack you need strong defences which are well placed.
(b) To withstand the cold in winter, you need thick, warm clothes.
(c) Yes, I can. Actually, our teachers generally give us our assignments at intervals and we usually knowwell in advance what we should. So as long as you get on with the work (and don’t leave it until thelast minute!) the pressure is not too bad and we can manage.
6 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.
(几处倒装句应灵活处理，以体现原文语气。every last book the man has written 等于 all the books he has written。注意这段话的逻辑关系。If he is anything, he is a man of…一句中的 if 从句起强调作用，说明他不是一个书生或思想家，而是一个行动家。此处需灵活翻译。)
7 Translate the paragraphs into English.
It was not until after he had graduated from university and started to work that Zhang Lei became awareof the pleasure of reading. Reflecting on his undergraduate studies, he lamented that he, unlike hisclassmates who had immersed themselves in various interesting books they were able to lay hands onfrom the library or bookshop, had only read textbooks, none of which was really worthwhile, or couldbe read in one sitting. He was deprived of the privilege of gaining access to the writers’ fantastic worldsthrough the windows their books have opened, so to speak.
Now he has become an avid and omnivorous reader. It is as if he wants to make up for those marvelousbooks he hadn’t had a chance to read in his university days. So far, in his spare time, he has readseveral hundreds of books, including novels, biographies and travel notes. He realizes that books cannot only reveal to him the vista of a hopeful future and help him withstand stresses and strains, they can also help him clear up some misconceptions and discover the true meaning of life.
小时候，在我们刚刚能听讲的时候，书对我们的生活方式就产生了很大的影响。从父母给孩子读的睡前故事一直到成年后家中摆满书柜的客厅，书界定了我们的人生。英国作家E. M. 福斯特（1879–1970）暗示书对我们具有另一种更加神秘的支配力。他写道：“我认为能影响我们的书籍是那些我们已经准备要读的书，它们只是在我们已经选定的道路上走得比我们更远一些而已。”合适的书好像自己就会在恰当的时候找到我们，出现在我们面前，而不是我们去寻找那本书。