【四六级翻译】常考主题

魔研公社2020-07-11 07:35:46





节日

重要


离家的距离越来越远


主题1  传统节日类

以【中秋节】为例

中国人自古以来就在中秋时节庆祝丰收,这与北美地区庆祝感恩节的习俗十分相似,过中秋节的习俗与唐代早期在中国各地开始流行,中秋节在农历八月十五,是人们拜月的节日,这天夜晚皓月当空,人们合家团聚,共赏明月。2006年,中秋节被列为中国的文化遗产,2008年又被定为公共假日,月饼被视为中秋节不可或缺的美食,人们将月饼作为礼物馈赠亲友或在家庭聚会上享用。传统的月饼上带有“寿”(longevity)、“福”或“和”等字样。

【参考译文】

Since ancient times, the Chinese people have celebrated harvest in the middle of autumn, which is quite similar to the custom of celebrating Thanksgiving in North America. The tradition of celebrating the Mid-Autumn Festival became popular throughout China in the early Tang Dynasty. The Mid-Autumn Festival, falling on August 15th of the lunar calendar, is a day when people worship the moon. On this day, with the bright moon high in the clear sky, families reunite and enjoy the moon together. In 2006, the Mid-Autumn Festival was listed in China’s cultural heritage list, and in 2008, it was designated as a public holiday. Moon cakes, as indispensable delicious food of the Festival, are given as gifts to relatives and friends or enjoyed at family gatherings. Traditional moon cakes are stamped with Chinese characters with meanings of “longevity”, “happiness” or “harmony”, etc.  


拓展词汇:

春节 the Spring Festival

元宵节 the Lantern Festival

清明节 the Tomb-sweeping Day

端午节 the Dragon-boat Festival

中秋节 the Mid-autumn Day

重阳节 the Double-ninth Day

七夕节 the Double-seventh Day  

营养 nutrition

有营养的 nutritional

谷物 grains

大米rice

小麦wheat

玉米 corn

大豆 bean

月饼 moon cake

年糕 rice cake

油条 deep-fried dough sticks

豆浆 soybean milk

馒头 steamed buns

春节 the Spring Festival

元宵节 the Lantern Festival

清明节 the Tomb-sweeping Day

端午节 the Dragon-boat Festival

中秋节 the Mid-autumn Day

重阳节 the Double-ninth Day

七夕节 the Double-seventh Day  

营养 nutrition

有营养的 nutritional

谷物 grains

大米rice

小麦wheat

玉米 corn

大豆 bean

月饼 moon cake

年糕 rice cake

油条 deep-fried dough sticks

豆浆 soybean milk

馒头 steamed buns

工艺品  handwork/handicrafts

文物  cultural relics/antiques

国宝  national treasure

龙的传人 Descendants of Dragon

祖先 ancestor

传说 legend

起源于 originate 

起源 origin  

起初的、开始的、原创的 original

独一无二的 unique (adj.) uniqueness (n)

大大促进 contribute greatly to 

文明 civilization 

文明的civilized

古老的 ancient

扫墓  sweep graves of one’s ancestors or loved ones

赛龙舟  dragon-boat racing

粽子zongzi  (sticky rice dumpling wrapped in reed or bamboo leaves)

月饼  moon cake

赏月  appreciate the glorious full moon

赏菊  admire the beauty of chrysanthemum

登高  climb mountain

迷人的风光 attractive / charming/ fascinating scenery/ landscape

当地的 local

旅游景点 tourist attraction

书法 calligraphy

孔庙  Temple of Confucius

火药 gunpowder

印刷术printing

造纸术 paper-making

指南针 the compass

儒家思想Confucianism

儒家文化 Confucian culture

道教 Taoism

墨家Mohism

佛教 Buddhism



GROWTH

成长



主题2. 教育读书类


中国教育工作者早就认识到读书对于国家的重要意义。有些教育工作者2003年就建议设立全民读书日。他们强调,人们应当读好书,尤其是经典著作,通过阅读,人们能更好地学会感恩、有责任心和与人合作,而教育的目的正是要培养这些基本素质。阅读对于中小学生尤为重要,假如他们没有在这个关键时期培养阅读的兴趣,以后要养成阅读的习惯就很难了。

【参考文献】

For a long time, educational workers in China have come to realize the significance of reading for the nation. Since 2003, some of them have suggested that a National Day for Reading should be set up. They emphasize that people should reading good books, especially classic ones. Through reading, individuals can better learn to be grateful, responsible and cooperative with others. And the purpose of education is to cultivate these basic qualities. Reading is of vital importance for students in primary and middle schools,because if they do not foster interest of reading in this key period, it will be difficult for them to develop the habit of reading in future.


拓展词汇:

素质教育 quality-oriented education 
希望工程Project Hope 
走读生 non-resident student 
研究生 graduate student; post-graduate (student)

应届毕业生 graduating student

校园数字化 campus digitalization

校园文化 campus culture

学汉语热 enthusiasm in learning Chinese

高等学府 institution of higher education
综合性大学 comprehensive university
文科院校 colleges of (liberal) arts
理工科大学 college / university of science and engineering
师范学院 teachers’ college; normal college
高分低能 high scores and low abilities
高考(university/college) entrance examination

教育界 education circle

教育投入 input in education

九年义务教育 nine-year compulsory education
课外活动 extracurricular activities
必修课 required/compulsory course 
选修课 elective/optional course 
基础课 basic courses 
专业课 specialized courses 
课程表 school schedule 
教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus 
学分 credit
人才战 competition for talented people 
商务英语证书 Business English Certificate (BEC) 
升学率 proportion of students entering schools of a higher grade; enrollment rate

学龄儿重school-ager
学前教育 preschool education
学生减负 alleviate the burden on students
应试教育 exam-oriented education
职业道德 work ethics; professional ethics
职业培训job training
智商 intelligence quotient (IQ)
助学行动 activity to assist the impoverished/poor students


主题3. 经济环境类

当外国人第一次来到中国,他们不仅惊讶于中国经济的快速发展,还惊讶于经济发展带来的环境恶化。经济发展确实改善了人们的生活,但恶劣的空气和食品质量又会降低人们的幸福感。虽然很多人说这是发展的必然途径,但他们忽略了一点,即经济发展造成的环境伤害很难弥补。比如北京的雾霾(smog)已经严重影响人们的生活。幸运的是,政府已经意识到这个问题,一系列改善环境的行动正在进行。

【参考译文】

When foreigners firstly come to China, they are shocked/ surprised by not only the rapid/speedy development of China’s economy, but also environmental pollution by economic development. The advance of economy truly enhances people’s life, but bad air and food quality reduce people’s happiness. Although a host of people said this is a necessary trend of development, it is rather difficult to recover the environmental damage because of economic development. A case in point is that the smog has seriously influenced people’s life. Fortunately, the government has come to realize this problem, and a series of actions /measures have been taken to improve environment.

拓展词汇:

水污染water pollution/water contamination

环境质量恶化deterioration of environment

沙漠化desertization

淡水资源短缺shortage of fresh water

沙尘暴dust storm

全球变暖 global warming

动物灭绝the extinction of  animal

水资源缺乏water scarcity

生态失衡disruption  of  ecological Balance

过度使用农药over-usage of pesticide

物质文明和精神文明 material and spiritual civilization
小康社会 a well-off society
一个中国原则 the one-China principle
与时俱进 keep pace with the times
综合国力 overall national strength
贫富分化 disparity between the rich and the poor

社会保障 social security 
独生子女 the only child in a family 
民工 migrant laborers 
名人 celebrity
全民健身运动 nationwide fitness campaign 
全国人口普查 nationwide census

老龄化 aging of population
人口出生率birth rate



HO

ME


主题4. 科技创新

中国的互联网社区是全世界发展最快的。2010年,中国约有4.2亿网民( netizen ),且人数还在迅速增长。互联网的日渐流行带来了重大的社会变化。中国网民往往不同于美国网民。美国网民更多的是受实际需要的驱使,用互联网为工具发电子邮件、买卖商品、规划旅程或付款。中国网民更多是出于社交原因使用互联网,因而更广泛地使用QQ、聊天室等。

【参考译文】

The Internet community in China is developing fastest in the world. In 2010, there were approximately 420 million netizens, and the number is still on speedy increase. The growing popularity of the Internet leads to significant social changes. Usually, Chinese netizens are different from their American counterparts. Netizens in U.S. tend to focus on their practical needs for the Internet, which serves as a tool to send emails, purchase and sell commodities, plan tours, or pay. For Chinese netizens, the Internet is more frequently used for social purpose, and thus, QQ and chatting rooms are widely preferred.

拓展词汇:

数码科技 digital technology

网络世界cyber world 
网络文化cyber culture 
网络犯罪cyber crime 
网上购物 online shopping 
高产优质 high yield and high quality 
高科技园 high-tech park 
工业园区 industrial park

信息港info port 
信息革命 information revolution 
电子货币e-currency 
人工智能 artificial intelligence (AI)
生物技术 bio-technology 
克隆 cloning
基因工程 genetic engineering
转基因食品 genetically modified food (GM food)
三维电影 three-dimensional movie
虚拟银行virtual bank
信息高速公路 information superhighway
新兴学科 new branch of science; emerging discipline
纳米 nanometer
个人数字助理 personal digital assistant (PDA)
生态农业 environment-friendly agriculture
技术密集产品 technology-intensive product

电子商务 e-business; e-commerce 
电子管理e-management 
办公自动化 Office Automation (OA)
信息高地 information highland
信息检索 information retrieval
电话会议 teleconference
无土栽培 soilless cultivation
超级杂交水稻super-hybrid rice
科技发展 scientific and technological advancement
重点项目key project
国家重点工程 national key projects



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