To get a sense of how women have progressed in science, take a quick tour of the physics department at the University of California, Berkeley.
This is a storied place, the 36 of some of the most important discoveries in modern science that started with Ernest Lawrence’s invention of the cyclotron (回旋加速器) in 1931.
A generation ago, female faces were 37 and, even today, visitors walking through the first floor of LeConte Hall will see a full corridor of exhibits 38 the many distinguished physicists who made history here, 39 all of them white males.
But clime up to the third floor and you’ll see a 40 display. There, among the photos of current faculty 41 members and students, are portraits of the current head of the department, Marjorie Shapiro, and four other women whose research 42 everything from the mechanics of the universe to the smallest particles of matter.
A sixth woman was hired just two weeks ago. Although they’re still only about 10 percent of the physics faculty, women are clearly a presence here. And the real 43 may be in the smaller photos to the right: graduate and undergraduate students, about 20 percent of them female.
Every year Berkeley sends its fresh female physics PhDs to the country’s top universities. That makes Shapiro optimistic, but also 44 .
“I believe things are getting better,” she says, “but they’re not getting better as 45 as I would like.”