六级讲座听力每日一练026

应试宝四六级2018-06-27 19:36:32

Nowlisten to the following recording and answer questions 1 and 2

 

1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?

A. To introduce a method that can helpstudents remember new information.

B. To introduce a way to study how information passesfrom one person to another.

C. To explain the differences betweenbiological information and cultural information.

D. To explain the differences betweenstories, songs, and other pieces of information.

 

2. Why does the professor tell the storyabout alligators?.

A. To explain the difference between trueand false stories.

B. To draw an analogy between alligatorreproduction and cultural transmission.

C. To give an example of a piece of informationthat functions as a meme.

D. To show how a story can gradually changeinto a song.

 


Lecture26(For questions 1 and 2)

#   Have you ever heard the one about alligators living in New York sewers?The story goes like this: a family went on vacation in Florida and bought acouple of baby alligators as presents for their children, then returned fromvacation to New York, bringing the alligators home with them as pets. But thealligators would escape and find their way into the New York sewer system wherethey started reproducing, grew to huge sizes and now strike fear into sewer workers.Have you heard this story? Well, it isn’t true and it never happened. Butdespite that, the story has been around since the 1930s.

 

#   Or how about the song ‘twinkle, twinkle little star’, you know,‘twinkle, twinkle, little star, how I wonder what you are’. Well we’ve allheard this song. Where am I going with this? Well, both the song and the storyare examples of memes. And that’s what we would talk about, the theory ofmemes.

 

#   A meme is defined as a piece of information copied from person toperson. By this definition, most of what you know, ideas, skills, stories,songs are memes. All the words you know, all the scientific theories you’velearned, the rules your parents taught you to observe, all are memes that havebeen passed on from person to person.

 

#   So what? You may say. Passing on ideas from one person to another isnothing new. Well, the whole point of defining this familiar process astransmission of memes is so that we can explore its analogy with the transmissionof genes. As you know, all living organisms pass on biological informationthrough the genes. What’s a gene? A gene is a piece of biological informationthat gets copied or replicated, and the copy or replica is passed on to the newgeneration. So genes are defined as replicators. Genes are replicators thatpass on information about properties and characteristics of organisms. Byanalogy, memes also get replicated and in the process pass on culturalinformation from person to person, generation to generation. So memes are alsoreplicators.

 

#   To be a successful replicator, there are three key characteristics:longevity, fecundity and fidelity. Let’s take a closer look.

 


#    你可曾有听过生活于纽约下水道的短吻鳄的故事?故事是这样的:有一家人在佛罗里达度假之后,给家里的孩子带回了几只小短吻鳄作为礼物,回到纽约后,把这几只小短吻鳄当做宠物养着。然而短吻鳄逃走并找到回去纽约下水道的路,在那里开始繁殖长成大短吻鳄,现在下水道工人也心有余悸。不知道你有没有听过这个故事。其实,这个故事并不是真的,从来就没有发生过。但尽管如此,该故事自20世纪30年代就已传开来了。

 

#    那么我们谈谈这首歌,“一闪一闪亮晶晶”,就是这样唱的:“一闪一闪晶晶,满天都是小星星”。好吧,我们肯定都听过这首歌。我的用意在哪儿(那我要讲什么呢)?这个故事和这首歌都是用来介绍模因的两个例子。这就是我们要讲的,文化基因。

 

#    文化基因被定义为人与人之间所复制的一则信息。根据这个定义,我们所知道的,想法,技巧,故事和歌曲都可以是文化基因。所有你所学的单词和科学理论,父母教你观察事物的规律,这些都是人与人之间所传递的文化基因。那又怎样?你可能这么认为,想法在人与人之间传递的事情已经不是什么新鲜事了。将这种人们熟悉的过程定义为模因的传递的重点在于我们能够可以将它与基因的传递相类比。

 

#    众所周知,所有生物都是通过基因将生物信息传递下去。那么什么是基因呢?基因是不断复制和重复的生物信息,所有信息被传递到下一代中去。因此基因被定义为复制器。基因是将包含生物性质和特征的信息传递到下一代的复制器。通过类比,我们知道文化基因也是通过复制并把文化信息在同一时代和不同时代的人之间传递下去。因此文化基因也是复制器。

 

#    成功的复制器必须具备三个关键特征:持久性,多产性和保真性。让我们深入探讨一下。

 



解析 

1题,B这是一道无耻的主旨题。开头只是引子,抓主旨要听很长很长。

教授先提到两个故事,作为文化信息传播的例子,然后把这种人与人之间的信息传递的过程定义为meme,并和生物信息传递—基因进行相类比,用基因的三个特点来类比研究memeB. To introduce a wayto study how information passes from one person to another.符合原文。

 

2题,C

教授先谈到了短吻鳄的故事,在讲完这个故事之后,提到了唱歌的例子,然后提出了一个问题,并给出了答案,即讲解这两个故事的目的是作为meme的例子。C. To give an exampleof a piece of information that functions as a meme.符合原文。

 

注意,六级考试与本篇练习的区别在于,试卷上只有四个选项,问题是在听力最后读出来的,需要考生认真听题。

 

好了,今天的推送就到这里。




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