The view over a valley of a tiny village with thatched(草盖的) roof cottages around a church; a drive through a narrow village street lined with thatched cottages painted pink or white; the sight over the rolling hills of a pretty collection of thatched farm buildings-these are still common sights in parts of England. Most people will agree that the thatched roof is an essential part of the attraction of the English countryside.
Thatching is in fact the oldest of all the building crafts practised in the British Isles(英伦诸岛). Although thatch has always been used for cottage and farm buildings, it was once used for castles and churches, too.
Thatching is a solitary(独自的) craft, which often runs in families. The craft of thatching as it is practised today has changed very little since the Middle Ages. Over 800 full-time thatchers are employed in England and Wales today, maintaining and renewing the old roofs as well as thatching newer houses. Many property owners choose thatch not only for its beauty but because they know it will keep them cool in summer and warm in winter.
In fact, if we look at developing countries, over half the world lives under thatch, but they all do it in different ways. People in developing countries are often reluctant to go back to traditional materials and would prefer modern buildings. However, they may lack the money to allow them to import the necessary materials. Their temporary mud huts with thatched roofs of wild grasses often only last six months. Thatch which has been done the British way last from twenty to sixty years, and is an effective defence against the heat .
1. Which of the following remains a unique feature of the English countryside?
A) Cottages with thatched roofs. B) Churches with cottages around them.
C) Rolling hills with pretty farm buildings. D) Narrow streets lined with pink or white houses.
2. What do we know about thatching as a craft?
A) It is quite different from what it used to be.
B) It is in most cases handed down among family members.
C) It is practised on farms all over England.
D) It is a collective activity.
3. Thatched houses are still preferred because of ________.
A) their durability B) their easy maintenance
C) their cheap and ready-made materials D) their style and comfort
4. People in developing countries also live under thatch because ______-.
A) they like thatched houses better than other buildings
B) thatch is an effective defence against the heat
C) thatched roof houses are the cheapest
D) thatched cottages are a big tourist attraction
5. We can learn from the passage that _______.
A) the English people have a special liking for thatched houses
B) most thatched cottages in England are located on hillsides
C) thatching is a building craft first created by the English people
D) thatched cottages in England have been passed down from ancient times
The way people hold to the belief that a fun-filled, painfree life equals happiness actually reduces their chances of ever attaining real happiness, If fun and pleasure are equal to happiness then pain must be equal to unhappiness. But in fact, the opposite is true: more often than not things that lead to happiness involve some pain.
As a result, many people avoid the very attempts that are the source of true hap piness. They fear the pain inevitably brought by such things as marriage, raising children,professional achievement, religious commitment (承担的义务), self improvement. Ask a bachelor(单身汉) why he resists marriage even though he finds dating to be less and less satisfying. If he is honest he will tell you that he is afraid of making a commitment. For commitment is in fact quite painful. The single life i s filled with fun, adventure, excitement. Marriage has such moments, but they are not its most distinguishing features.
Couples with infant children are lucky to get a whole night's sleep or a three day vacation. I don't know any parent who would choose the word fun to describe raising children. But couple who decide not to have children never know the joys of watching a child grow up or of playing with a grandchild.
Understanding and accepting that true happiness has nothing to do with fun is one of the most liberating realizations. It liberates time: now we can devote more hours to activities that can genuinely increase our happiness. It liberates money: buying that new car or those fancy clothes that will do nothing to increase our happiness now seems pointless. And it liberates us from envy: we now understand that all those who are always having so much fun actually may not be happy at all.
1. According to the author, a bachelor resists marriage chiefly because _______ .
A) he is reluctant to take on family responsibilities
B) he believes that life will be more cheerful if he remains single
C) he finds more fun in dating than in marriage
D) he fears it will put an end to all his fun adventure and excitement
2. Raising children, in the author's opinion, is _______.
A) a moral duty B) a thankless job
C) a rewarding task D) a source of inevitable pain
3. From the last paragraph, we learn that envy sometimes stems from _______.
A) hatred B) misunderstanding
C) prejudice D) ignorance
4. To understand what true happiness is one must _______.
A) have as much run as possible during one's lifetime
B) make every effort to liberate oneself from pain
C) put up with pain under all circumstances
D) be able to distinguish happiness from fun
5. What is the author trying to tell us?
A) Happiness often goes hand in hand with pain.
B) One must know how to attain happiness.
C) It is important to make commitments.
D) It is pain that leads to happiness.
There is no denying that students should learn something about how computers work, just as we expect them at least to understand that the internal combustion engine(内燃机) has something to do with burning fuel, expanding gases and pistons (活塞) being driven. For people should have some basic idea of how the things that they use do what they do. Further, students might be helped by a course that considers the computer's impact on society. But that is not what is meant by computer literacy. For computer literacy is not a form of literacy(读写能力);it is a trade skill that should not be taught as a liberal art.
Learning how to use a computer and learning how to program one are two distinct activities, A case might be made that the competent citizens of tomorrow should free themselves from their fear of computers. But this is quite different from saying that all ought to know how to program one. Leave that to people who have c hosen programming as a career. While programming can be lots of fun, and while our society needs some people who are experts at it, the same is true of auto repair and violin making.
Learning how to use a computer is not that difficult, and it gets easier all the time as programs become more“user?friendly”. Let us assume that in the future everyone is going to have to know how to use a computer to be a competent citizen. What does the phrase “learning to use a computer”mean? It sounds like “learning to drive a car”, that is, it sounds as if there is some set of definite skills that, once acquired, enable one to use a computer.
In fact,“learning to use a computer”is much more like“learning to play a game”, but learning the rules of one game may not help you play a second game, whose rules may not be the same. There is no such a thing as teaching someone how to use a computer. One can only teach people to use this or that program and generally that is easily accomplished.
1. To be the competent citizens of tomorrow, people should _______.
A) try to lay a solid foundation in computer science
B) be aware of how the things that they use do what they do
C) learn to use a computer by acquiring a certain set of skills
D) understand that programming a computer is more essential than repairing a car
2. In the second paragraph “violin?making”is mentioned to show that _______ .
A) programming a computer is as interesting as making a violin
B) our society needs experts in different fields
C) violin making requires as much skill as computer programming
D) people who can use a computer don't necessarily have to know computer program-ming
3. Learning to use a computer is getting easier all the time because _______ .
A) programs are becoming less complicated
B) programs are designed to be convenient to users
C) programming is becoming easier and easier
D) programs are becoming readily available to computer users
4. According to the author,the phrase“learning to use a computer”(Lines3,4,Para.3)means learning _______.
A) a set of rules B) the fundamentals of computer science
C) specific programs D) general principles of programming
5. The author's purpose in writing this passage is _______.
A) to stress the impact of the computer on society
B) to explain the concept of computer literacy
C) to illustrate the requirements for being competent citizens of tomorrow
D) to emphasize that computer programming is an interesting and challenging job
The first modern Olympic Games was held in Athens(雅典)in 1896 and only twelve nations participated. Besides the host nation man participants were tourists who __1__ to be in Greece at the time. Though the whole affair was __2__ and the standard was not high, the old principle of amateur sport was kept up.
Since then the games had been held every four years except during the __3__ of the two World War. This was __4__ a departure from the old Olympic spirit when wars had to stop and make way for the games.
The games have grown enormously in scale and __5__ performances have now reached unprecedented heights. Unfortunately the same cannot be said about their __6__ standard. Instead of Olympia, the modern games are now held in different cities all over the world. Inevitably politics and commercialism get involvedas countries vie each other for(为 ...... 而互相竞争) the __7__ to hold the games because of the political prestige and commercial profit to be __8__ out of them. In the 11 th games held in Berlin in 1936, Hitler who had newly come to __9__ in Germany tried to use the occasion for his Nazi propaganda. For the first time the Olympic flame was brought all the way from Olympia to the games site in relays, a marathon journey now often taking months to __10__.
A) honour B) accomplish C) had D) moral
E) arrive F) occured G) end H) power
I) happened J) definitely K) Physical L) informal
M) interruption N) especially O) irregular
洛阳是地处中原的河南省西部一个地级市(prefecture-level city)。 它东部舭邻省会郑州，南接南阳，西连三门峡(S_enxia)，北邻济源。 在唐代(the Tang Dynasty),洛阳是东都(Dongdu)，东部首都，其人 口最多的时候有100万左右，仅次于当时世界上最大的城市——长安。 在短暂的五代(Five Dynasties)时期，洛阳是后梁(Later Liang)，后唐 (Later Tang)和后晋(Later Jin)的首都，后来。北宋(the North Song Dynasty)时期，洛阳是西部首都，也是宋朝的建立人赵匡胤的出生地。