翻译 选词填空 仔细阅读 作文等题型
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
Female applicants to postdoctoral positions in geosciences were nearly half as likely to receive excellent letters of recommendation, compared with their male counterparts. Christopher Intagliata reports.
As in many other fields, gender bias is widespread in the sciences. Men score higher starting salaries, have more mentoring ( 指 导 ), and have better odds of being hired. Studies show they’re also perceived as more competent than women in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. And new research reveals that men are more likely to receive excellent letters of recommendation, too.
“Say, you know, this is the best student I’ve ever had,” says Kuheli Dutt, a social scientist and diversity officer at Columbia University’s Lamont campus. “Compare those excellent letters with a merely good letter: ‘The candidate was productive, or intelligent, or a solid scientist or something that’s clearly solid praise,’ but nothing that singles out the candidate as exceptional or one of a kind.”
Dutt and her colleagues studied more than 1,200 letters of recommendation for postdoctoral positions in geoscience. They were all edited for gender and other identifying information, so Dutt and her team could assign them a score without knowing the gender of the student. They found that female applicants were only half as likely to get outstanding letters, compared with their male counterparts. That includes letters of recommendation from all over the world, and written by, yes, men and women. The findings are in the journal Nature Geoscience.
Dutt says they were not able to evaluate the actual scientific qualifications of the applicants using the data in the files. But she says the results still suggest women in geoscience are at a potential disadvantage from the very beginning of their careers starting with those less than outstanding letters of recommendation.
“We’re not trying to assign blame or criticize anyone or call anyone consciously sexist. Rather, the point is to use the results of this study to open up meaningful dialogues on implicit gender bias, be it at a departmental level or an institutional level or even a discipline level.” Which may lead to some recommendations for the letter writers themselves.
据克里斯托弗 • 因塔格利亚塔报道，和男性申请者相比，女性在申请地球科学博士后时获得优秀推荐信的概 率差不多是男性的一半。 就像在其他领域一样，科学领域中性别歧视是普遍存在的。男性的起薪更高，能得到更多的指导，受聘的几 率也更高。研究显示，男性在STEM(科学、技术、工程和数学)领域也被认为比女性更有能力。而且新的研究显示， 男性也更可能收到优秀推荐信。 “比如说，这是我带过的最好的学生。”哥伦比亚大学拉蒙特校区的社会科学家、多元化战略师凯海琳 • 达 特说。“与那些优秀的推荐信相比，一封还算不错的推荐信会写：‘该申请者效率高或很聪明，是个理智的科学家等这种明显生硬的赞扬，’但是这些都不能让申请者从众多申请者中脱颖而出。 达特和她的同事研究了 1200 多封申请地球科学博士后的推荐信，这些推荐信中关于性别和其他识别性信息 都被编辑过，这样达特和她的团队就能在不知道学生性别的情况下给这些推荐信打分。他们发现，与男性申请者 相比，女性申请者仅有一半的可能得到优秀推荐信。这包含了来自世界各地的推荐信，当然，既有男性写的，也 有女性写的。这项研究发现发表在《自然地球科学》期刊上。 达特说他们不能通过档案信息来评估申请者的实际科研素质。但是，她说这项研究结果依然表明，因没有优 秀的推荐信，女性在地球科学领域从一开始的职业生涯中就处于潜在的不利地位。 “我们并非想指责或批评任何人，或说有人是故意性别歧视者。相反，这项研究的目的是利用这项研究的结 果对隐含的性别偏见开启有意义的对话，不管是在部门层面，还是在机构层面，甚至是在学科层面。”这也可以 给写推荐信的人提供一些建议。