Directions：For this part，you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on innovation/creation/invention. Your essay should include the importance of innovation and measures to be taken to encourage innovation/creation/invention. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
In today's highly competitive world, innovation matters enormously to an organization or a country. It is the driving force behind increased competitiveness.
Take growing a successful business as an example. In this day and age, social media are gaining popu larity among the general public. A company that only relies on traditional media doing its marketing is more likely to get eliminated in the digital era. Put in another way, a company with its focus on social media to boost its brand recognition stands a better chance of standing out from the crowd. Clearly, innovation is a vital contributing factor to business success.
What can be done to encourage innovation? To name only a few: Above all, a business or a country should strive to build a corporate culture or a social climate that values innovation. Second, anyone who participates in the innovation process should be rewarded. Third, we are in urgent need of an education system that stresses innovation over mechanical learning.
Simply put, innovation is an important force that pushes our society forward.
Nowadays it is common to encounter a scene when people want to see things happen but can‘t make things happen for various reasons. The mostimportant reason is that they just refuse to create and innovate. With the accelerated pace of our society, more and more people recognize the importance of creation that is bound to make a difference in social productivity.
As far as I am concerned, we should all have the notion of being the participants of supporting creation. First of all, creation is the most vital factor to improve the inner competitiveness of our nation. For another, it is certain that creation is so essential that enables many people to find their positions in the company and careers in their lives.
Measures are also needed to encourage creation. First and foremost, the government should establish certain rules to sweep up the obstacles of invention. Some people have already complained much about complicated procedure of patent applications or high fees to do experiments of inventions. Additionally, high schools and universities can provide students with scholarships or overseas learning opportunities,which will stimulate more youngsters to join the group of invention and innovation.
With China’s booming economy, the number of people who learn Chinese grows rapidly. It makes Chinese become one of the favorite languages that people would like to learn. Recently, Chinese universities rise significantly in world university rankings. Since the significant progress made in Chinese education, it is no wonder that China has been one of the most favored places for overseas students. In 2015, nearly 40,0000 international students swarmed into the Chinese market. Not confined to Chinese language and culture, the subjects they choose to learn also include science and engineering. Although the global market is still dominated by US and UK, China is striving to catch up.
With the improvement of living standards, vacation plays a more important role in the Chinese life. In the past, they had spent most of their time making a living and barely had a chance to travel. However, China’s tourism industry flourishes in recent years. Economic prosperity and the emergence of the affluent middle class leads to an unprecedented tourism boom. Chinese people like to travel both at home and abroad, and overseas trips have become increasingly common among them. During the National Day holiday in 2016, tourism spending totaled more than 400 billion yuan. World Trade Organization estimates that China will become the world’s largest tourist country by 2020, and it will also become one of the fastest-growing countries on outbound tourism spending in the next few years.
Section A Conversation
1. [C] It links the science of climate change to economic and policy issues.
2. [B] It would be more costly to deal with its consequences than to avoid it.
3. [A] The transition to low-carbon energy systems.
4. [C] Plan well in advance.
5. [B] What determines success.
6. [D] It means being good at seizing opportunities.
7. [D] Practice is essential to becoming good at something.
8. [C] Being passionate about work can make one wealthy.
Section B Passage
9. [A] To stump of a giant tree.
10. [B] Wind and water.
11. [D] It was created by supernatural powers.
12. [C] By lifting them well above the ground.
13. [A] They will buy something from the convenience stores.
14. [A] They can bring only temporary pleasures.
15. [D] Small daily savings an make a big difference in one's life.
Section C Lecture
16. [B] They are necessary in our lives.
17. [B] They feel too overwhelmed to deal with life's problem.
18. [A] They expand our mind.
19. [B] It came from a 3D printer.
20. [C] When she was studying at a fashion design school.
21. [C] It was hard and breakable.
22. [D] It marks a breakthrough in printing material.
23. [A] They arise from the advances in technology.
24. [D] It is intensively competitive.
25. [D] Sharing of costs with each other.
26. [O] vanished
27. [M] undergone
28. [D] expanding
29. [K] survived
30. [H] process
31. [L] terminals
32. [E] industrialized
33. [F] perceived
34. [B] conveniences
35. [G] practice
Countries Rush for Upper Hand in Antarctica
46. [D] It has little impact on their decision whether or not to quit smoking.
47. [A] Pass a law to standardise cigarette packaging.
48. [B] The number of smokes has dropped more sharply than in the UK.
49. [A] Prime Minister Cameron has been reluctant to take action.
50. [C] They made more British people obese.
51. [A] It is worthwhile after all.
52. [D] Most of them take jobs which don't require a college degree.
53. [C] Interactions among themselves outside the classroom.
54. [B] Meting people who will be helpful to you in the future.
55. [D] The prestige of the university influences employers' recruitment decisions.
W: Professor Henderson could you give us a brief overview of what you do, where you work and your main area of research?
M: Well the Center for Climate Research where I work links the science of climate change to issues around economics and policy.
Some of our research is to do with the likely impacts of climate change and all of the associated risks.
W: And how strong is the evidence that climate change is happening that it's really something we need to be worried about.
M: Well most of the science of climate change particularly that to do with global warming is simply fact.
But other aspects of the science are less certain or at least more disputed.
And so we're really talking about risk what the economics tells us is that it's probably cheaper to avoid climate change to avoid the risk than it has to deal with the likely consequences.
W: So what are we doing? What can we do about it?
M: Well I would argue that we need to develop the science specifically to understand the likely impacts of climate change in different contexts.
As I said we need to understand the best ways of avoiding climate change and this will involve a huge transition to low carbon energy systems and the transition is a tremendous priority.
And for this to happen, we may need action on aglobal scale from a political perspective.
We need to understand the terms on which major countries like China and the USA might sign up to a global agreement because at the moment we don't have that consensus.
M: And we also need to plan ahead so that we're in a position to deal with the likely levels of climate change which are already inevitable and even more so to for the levels that are likely if we don't get those global agreements.
Q1. What does Professor H say about his main area of research?
A It tries to predict the possible trends of global climate change.
B It studies the impact of global climate change on people’s lives.
C It links the science of climate change to economic and policy issues.
D It focuses on the efforts countries can make to deal with global warning.
Q2. What does Professor H say about climate change?
A It will take a long time before a consensus is reached on its impact.
B It would be more costly to deal with its consequences than to avoid it.
C It is the most pressing issue confronting all countries.
D It is bound to cause endless disputes among nations.
Q3. What does Professor H say is a top priority in combating climate change?
A The transition to low-carbon energy systems.
B The cooperation among world major powers.
C The signing of a global agreement.
D The raising of people’s awareness.
Q4. What does Professor H advise us to do to better deal with climate change?
A Carry out more research on it.
B Cut down energy consumption.
C Plan well in advance.
D Adopt new technology.
W: I have many business English students. When I teach the classroom, we often end up talking about things like success and what leads to success. And it's interesting that many of them mention the element of luck.
W: Luck is important to success. But since you've seen that fantastic video on the TED Talks website by Richard St. John, he doesn't mention luck at all.
M: Well, I'm a firm believer that people can make their own luck. I mean what people regard as luck, you can actually create, to a degree.
W: Sure. I think a lot of what people consider luck is attributed to how you respond to the opportunities that come your way.
M: Yes. Very good point.
W: Seizing the opportunities. But was there any point in the video that you thought was particularly interesting?
M: Yes. Actually there was. Something very impressive to me as many people think that luck is important and that natural talent is something you must have in order to be successful. And in the video we saw, the point about getting good at something is not about having some natural talent. It's all about practice, practice, practice.
W: Definitely yeah. Natural talent helps in some way but at the end of the day you really do need to work hard and get really really good at what you do.
W: I thought one interesting thing in the video was the idea of passion being so important and that people who really love what they do. Of course you're going to want to work harder and put the time and effort into it. And the funny thing is that if you love what you do and are really passionate about it and work really hard, the money kind of comes automatically.
Q5. What are the speakers mainly talking about?
Q6. What is the woman’s view of luck?
Q7. What is the chief point the TED Talks video makes?
Q8. What does the woman think is the funny thing in the TED Talks video?
Devil’s Tower, the first national monument in America, could almost be mistaken for the stump of an enormous tree. Its sheer rock sides sweep up from a broad base until they cut off abruptly at the flat summit. Rising more than 1,000 feet in the middle of the gently rolling plains of Wyoming,the massive column of rock, looks as though it was dropped down into this location from a different time and place.
In a sense, it was, Devil’s Tower is a relic of the past. When the molten rock of the earth’s core forced its way to the surface to form the throat of a volcano, as the centuries passed, the rock cooled and hardened, shrinking and cracking into long columns, born in fire and fury. Devil’s Tower was then shaped by the slow, gentle work of wind and water. The outer layers of the volcano were worn away until the hard core stood completely exposed.
It is small wonder that an Indian legend described Devil’s Tower as being formed by supernatural powers. The legend says that when seven girls were attacked by bears, they took refuge on top of a small rock, and they appealed to the Rock God for help. The God caused the rock to grow and to lift the girls far above the ground, while it sides were scored by the claws of the angry bears. Even today, says the legend, the girls can be seen above the towering rock. As seven shining stars in the night sky.
9. What does the Devil’s Tower look like?
10. What cause the volcano’s outer layers to wear away?
11. What does the Indian legend say about the Devil’s Tower?
12. How did the Rock God help the seven girl in the Indian legend?
It’s no accident that most gas stations have convenience stores attached. Few of us can fill up the tank without buying a few snacks, cigarettes，soft drinks or other items we can live without. I deserve it. That’s what hard working men and women say to justify their lavish vacations, big stereo systems or regular restaurant meals. They do deserve such indulgences. However, they also deserve a home of their own--a secure retirement and freedom from worrying about unpaid bills. No one should have to live with what a Texas mother described as constant stress，tension, even fear about money. Sadly the pleasure that comes from extravagances often disappears long before the bills do. The video camera that one single mother bought for a special occasion, for example, is not much fun now. She’s figured out that it will take her another three years to pay it off at $30 a month. And the New Yorkers who spent a bundle on an outdoor hot tub now admit they rarely use it, because we can't afford to heat it in winter. The solution set priorities add up the annual cost of each item. Then consider what else you can buy with the same money. That will help you decide which items are really worth it. One Chicago woman, for example, discovered that daily lunches with coworkers cost her $2000 a year; she decided to take lunch to work instead. “I now put $20 a week into my vacation fund and another 20 into retirement savings, she says, those mean more to me than lunch”.
Q13. What does the speaker say about drivers who stop at gas stations?
Q14. What does the speaker say about extravagances?
Q15. What does a speaker want to show by the example of the Chicago woman?