英语四六级历年真题长难句摘选精析

山东外贸职业学院团委2020-03-04 15:20:51

1Our linguistic(语言上的)and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take noticeof the developed tastes, gestures, customs and languages of other countries,are losing us friends, business and respect in the world.

【分析】这是一个复杂的简单句;句子的主干是Our blindness and casualness are losing us. with which 引导一个定语从句修饰casualness. take notice of意思是“注意到”。

【译文】我们对语言、文化的无知,以及那种对其他国家形成的品味、手势、风俗和语言的漫不经心的态度,正使我们在世界上失去朋友,错过商机,丧失威信。

2A simple trip around the yard in a pair of those babies eliminatesall need to call for a lawn care specialist, and provides the perfect-sizedholes to give any lawn oxygen without all those messy chunks of dirt lyingaround.

【分析】这是一个复杂的简单句;句子的主干是A simple trip eliminates all need and provides holes. messy chunksof dirt:乱七八糟的脏东西。

【译文】只要穿这种娇小的鞋在院子里走一走,就完全没必要请修剪草坪的专家了,因为这会形成大小合适的洞为草坪提供氧气,周围还不会留下那些乱七八糟的脏东西。

3But my own worry today is less that of the overwhelming problem ofelemental literacy than it is of the slightly more luxurious problem of thedecline in the skill even of the middle-class reader, of his unwillingness toafford those spaces of silence, those luxuries of domesticity and time andconcentration, that surround the image of the classic act of reading.

【分析】这是一个带有比较级的句子,主干是:But my own worry today is less that than.

【译文】但我今天所担心的不是广泛泛滥的文盲问题,而是更加奢侈一点的问题,即:对中产阶级读者读写技能下降了的担忧,他们不愿把安静的地方、难得的家庭生活的机会、时间和注意力用来读书,而典型的读书活动正需要这些。

4This violation of concentration, silence, solitude(独处的状态)goes to the very heart of ournotion of literacy; this new form of part-reading, of part-perception againstbackground distraction, renders impossible certain essential acts ofapprehension and concentration, let alone that most important tribute any humanbeing can pay to a poem or a piece of prose he or she really loves, which is tolearn it by heart.

【分析】这是一个并列句。第一个分句的主干是:this violation goes to the heart of literacy.,第二个分句的主干是this new form renders,let alone …。

【译文】这种对精神集中、安静、独处状态的妨碍同阅读概念直接冲突;在娱乐背景下半读书半分散精力的读书新方式不可能专心致志地理解,更不要说任何一个人对真正喜爱的一首诗或一篇散文所能表示的最大赞赏是将其背诵下来了。

5And with doubtful prospects for a short-term financial return, withthe cold war a rapidly fading memory and amid a growing emphasis oninternational cooperation in large space ventures, it is clear that imperativesother than profits or nationalism will have to compel human beings to leave theirtracks on the planet's reddish surface.

【分析】句子的主干是itis clear that imperatives will have to compel human beings to leave tracks onthe planets reddishsurface.;两个with分别引导两个伴随状语。

【译文】由于短期经济回报有疑问、冷战在人们记忆中迅速消失,以及越来越强调在大规模空间探险中的国际合作;很清楚,不是经济利益或国家利益,而是必须履行的使命将迫使人类在那个红色行星的表面留下足迹。

6The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether itpersists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the RedPlanet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing controversyover suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite(陨石)from Mars.

【分析】句子的主干是Thisissue has been highlighted.由两地whether引导的从句做of的宾语;两个that所引导的从句分别做evidencesuggestions的同位语。

【译文】由于越来越多的证据表明这个红色行星上曾经有稳定而丰富的液态水,又因人们对落到地球上的火星细菌化石陨石的说法一直有争论,所以火星上是否存在过生命、是否延续至今的问题一直引人注目。

7What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control overan event, not th4e experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.

【分析】thatwhat分别引导两个表语从句;he believes是插入语,应该前置。

【译文】他认为,他所证明的是缺乏控制事件的能力会削弱免疫系统,而非经历本身。

8Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, hasshown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don't developsleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats.

【分析】that引导的宾语从句中又包含一个who引导的定语从句,修饰animals typical of sb.意思是“以……为特征的”。这句话中这个词组之前省略了,which is,是两个现象的定语从句。

【译文】杜克大学医学院的心理学家琼·伟斯已经证明:被允许控制不快刺激的动物不会出现睡眠障碍,大脑化学成分也不发生变化,这些正是老鼠紧张的典型表现。

9The reasons why they don't, and why the environment has not beenruined, have to do with prices, technological innovation, social change andgovernment regulation in response to popular pressure.

【分析】句子的主干是Thereasons have to do with prices, technological innovation, social change andgovernment regulation. 两个why均引导定语从句修饰reasons.in response to popular pressureregulation的后置定语。

【译文】为什么它们没发生,为什么环境被毁灭,这同价格、技术创新、社会变革和政府因公众压力所制定的规章有关。

10What has happened is that every time a material seems to be runningshort, the price has risen and, in response, people have looked for new sourcesof supply, tried to find ways to use less of the material, or looked for a newsubstitute.

【分析】这是简单的复杂句,句子的主干是What has happened is that。主语是what引导的主语从句,谓语是that引导的名词性从句;该从句中every time 引导一个时间状语从句,为第三层从句。

【译文】所发生的事情是这样的:每当一种原料看来将要短缺,价格就上升,相应地人们就寻找新的供应来源,尽量找到少用这种材料的方法,或者寻找替代品。

11Not too many decades ago it seemed "obvious" both to thegeneral public and to sociologists that modern society has changed people'snatural relations, loosened their responsibilities to kin (亲戚) and neighbors, and substitutedin their place superficial relationships with passing acquaintances.

【分析】句子的主干是itseemed "obvious" that that之后引导一个很长的主语从句;该从句的谓语动词有三个:changed, loosened, substituted.

【译文】几十年前,在普通大众和社会学家看来这是一个“明显的”事实:现代社会改变了人们的自然关系,淡化了他们对亲戚和邻居的责任感,取而代之的是点头之交的肤浅关系。

12 Nor are residents of large communities any likelier to displaypsychological symptoms of stress or alienation, a feeling of not belonging,than are residents of smaller communities.

【分析】这是一个含有比较级的倒装句;a feeling of not belonging是插入语,进一步解释alienation的含义。

【译文】同小城市居民相比,大城市居民也没有更可能表现压力或疏远(即无归属感)的心理症状。

13 As environmentalists convene in Rio de Janeiro this week to ponderthe global climate of the future, earth scientists are in the midst of arevolution in understanding how climate has changed in the past  and how those changes havetransformed human existence.

【分析】句子的主干是earthscientists are in the midst of a revolutionAs引导一个时间状语从句,两个how分别引导宾语从句,做understanding的宾语。

【译文】本周,当环境保护专家聚集在里约热内卢考虑今后的全球气候时,地球科学家们在理解过去气候的变化以及这些变化怎样改变了人类的生存方面正处在根本转变的过程中。

14Researchers have begun to piece together an illuminating picture ofthe powerful geological and astronomical forces that have combined to changethe planets environmentfrom hot to cold, wet to dry and back again over a time period stretching backhundreds of millions of years.

【分析】句子的主干是Researchershave begun to piece together an illuminating pictureThat引导一个定于从句修饰forces

【译文】地球环境从热变冷,从潮湿变干燥。然后又周而复始,这一过程可追溯至几亿年前,强大的地质和天文力量结合在一起使地球环境发生了这些变化,研究人员开始将这些组合成了一幅清晰的图画。

15 New research now suggests that climate shifts have played a keyrole in nearly every significant turning point in human evolution: from thedawn of primates (灵长目动物) some 65 million years ago to human ancestors rising up to walk ontwo legs, from the huge expansion of the human brain to the rise ofagriculture.

【分析】复杂的简单句,句子的主干是New research now suggests that……,that引导宾语从句,冒号后面的成分是对a key role 的说明。

【译文】目前,新的研究表明,气候变化在人类进化的每一个重大转折点都起了重要作用:从大约6500年前灵长目动物的出现到人类祖先直立起来用双腿走路,从人类大脑的迅速膨胀发育到农业的兴起。

16 In the emic approach, the goal is to describe behavior in oneculture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and important to thepeople in that culture or ethnic group, without regard to other cultures orethnic groups.

【分析】句子的主干是thegoal is to describe behaviorRegard是名词,而不是动词。

【译文】本位方法的目标是用对一种文化或民族中的人有意义的、重要的术语去描绘该文化或民族的行为,不考虑其他文化或民族。

17 The MBA, a 20th-century product, always has borne the mark of lowlycommerce and greed (贪婪) on the tree-lined campuses ruled by purer disciplines such asphilosophy and literature.

【分析】复杂的简单句,句子的主干是The MBA has borne the mark of lowly commerce and greed. such as discipline的同位语,ruled以过去分词的形式做campuses的后置定语,on the tree-lined campuses 做地点状语。

【译文】MBA20世纪的产物,在纯学术学科如哲学和文化占主导地位的绿树成荫的大学校园里,它往往是低俗的商业铜臭和贪婪的标志。

18 This is nearly 16 times the number of business graduates in 1960, atestimony to the widespread assumption that the MBA is vital for young men andwomen who want to run companies some day.

【分析】句子的主干是Thisis nearly 16 times the number of business graduates in 1960a testimony ……相当于which is a testimony……。that 后面引导一个同位语从句修饰assumption,其中又包含一个以who引导的定于从句。

【译文】这几乎是1960年商科毕业生的16倍,从而证实了人们的普遍假设,即MBA对那些想在将来某一天开公司的青年男女来说非常关键。

19 The success of Bill Gates and other non-MBAs, such as the late SamWalton of Wal-Mart Stores Inc., has helped inspire self-conscious debates onbusiness school campuses over the worth of a business degree and whethermanagement skills can be taught.

【分析】句子的主干是Thesuccess has helped inspire self-conscious debates. whether 引导一个宾语从句和the worth 一同做over 的宾语。

【译文】比尔·盖茨和其他非MBA,如已故Wal-Mart 连锁店的Sam Walton的成功,在商校校园里引起了有关工商学位的价值和管理技能是否可以通过教育获得等问题的自发讨论。

20 Motivated in part by Christian compassion (怜悯) for the helpless as well as a practicalpolitical impulse to undercut the support of the socialist labor movement,Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensation law in1884.

【分析】复杂的简单句,motivated…… 相当于As he was motivated ……,在句中做原因状语。句子的主干是Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensationlaw in 1884.

【译文】部分是出于一个基督徒对无助人的怜悯,同时也出于削弱社会党工人运动的支持这一实际政治动机,俾斯麦首相在1884年创立了世界上第一部工人赔偿法。

21Thus many in the industrial lands have a sense that their world ofplenty is somehow hollow-that, misled by a consumerist culture, they have beenfruitlessly attempting to satisfy what are essentially social, psychologicaland spiritual needs with material things.

【分析】这个句子的结构比较复杂,句子的主干是many have a sense. 第一个that引导sense的同位语;第二个that引导hollow的同位语;misled by a consumerist culture是原因状语;what引导satisfy的宾语从句。

【译文】于是,工业国家的许多人感觉到他们富足的世界不知何故变空了——由于受到消费中心主义文化的误导,他们试图满足社会的、心理的和精神上的对物质的本质需求,但毫无成果。

22 A new study by Dan Farmer, a gifted programmer, using an automatedinvestigative program of hisown called SATAN,shows that the owners of well over half of all World Wide Web siteshave set up home without fitting locks to their doors.

【分析】句子的主干是Anew study shows that……,using作方式伴随状语,that引导一个宾语从句,该从句的主干是the owners have setup home

【译文】天才的程序员,丹·法穆用他自称为“撒旦”的自动调查程序所做的一项最新研究表明,万维网一多半的主人建立了不上锁的家。

23 Of Ezekiel Cheever, the most famous schoolmaster of theMassachusetts Bay Colony, hisonetime student Cotton Mather wrote that he so planned his lessonsthat his pupils "came towork as though they came to play," and Alfred North Whitehead,almost three hundred yearslater, noted that a teacher should make his/her students" gladthey were there."

【分析】这是一个并列复合句,第一个分句的主语是hisonetimestudent Cotton Mather;第二个分句的主语是Alfred North Whitehead;两个分句各代一个宾语从句。

【译文】曾经是EzekielCheever, 这个马塞诸州海湾殖民地最著名的校长的学生,Cotton Mather 写到,他备的课程能让学生们感觉“上学就像玩一样”,过了大约三百年,Alfred North Whitehead 注意到一个教师必须使他/她的学生“高兴上学”。

24 A new high-performance contact lens under development at thedepartment for applied physics at theUniversity of Heidelberg will not only correct ordinary visiondefects but will enhance normal night vision as much as five times, makingpeople's vision sharper than that of cats.

【分析】这是一句比较长的简单句。句子的主干是contact lens will not only correct ordinary vision defects but willenhance normal night vision. under development作主语的定语,而making people's vision sharper than that of cats作目的状语。

【译文】在H大学的应用物理系研制的一种新型的高性能的隐性眼镜将不仅可以娇正普通的视力缺陷,还能把正常的夜间的视力提高5倍,使得人们的视力比猫还敏锐。

25 Bille's lenses are expected to reach the market in the year 2000,and one tentative plan is to use theInternet to transmit information on patients' visual defects fromthe optician to the manufacturer, whowill then produce and mail the contact lenses within a couple ofdays.

【分析】这是一个并列符合句,前一个分句的主干是Bille's lenses are expected to reach the market;后一个分句的主干是one tentative plan is……;who 引导一个菲限定性定语从句来修饰 manufacturer

【译文】比尔的眼睛希望在2000年上市,初步计划是利用因特网把患者的视力缺陷信息从眼镜商传到制造商,然后,制造商在两三天内制作好并将其寄出。

26In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of RochesterSchool of Medicine conditioned(使形成条件反射) mice to avoid saccharin(糖精) by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting themwith a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused stomach upsets.

[参考译文]1975年,罗切斯特大学医学院的心理学家Robert Ader在使老鼠对排斥糖精形成条件反射的试验中,喂食老鼠糖精的同时给它们注射了一种药剂,这种药在破坏老鼠的免疫系统的同时还会引起腹痛。

27The Times newspaper agrees, complaining that quality has suffered asstudent numbers soared, with close tutorial supervision giving way to mass production methods moretypical of European universities.

[参考译文]《泰晤士报》对此有同感,它报怨说,由于学生人数激增,教学质量受影响,因为个别指导不得不让位于“欧洲大陆国家高校里惯有的大规模生产方式”。

28By studying mineral grains found in material ranging from rocks toclay articles, previous researchers have already been able to identifyreversals dating back 170 million years, including the most recent switch730,000 years ago.

[参考译文]通过研究岩石,陶器等一系列材料中含有的矿物颗粒,先前的研究人员已能够确认早在1.7亿年发生的磁场两极转化现象,以及发生在73万年以前的最新一次两极转化现象。

29Not content with its doubtful claim to produce cheap food for ourown population, the factory farming industry also argues that hungry nations are benefiting fromadvances made by the poultry industry.

[参考译文]工厂养殖业已不满足于我国人口提供廉价食物的可疑说法,进一步提出了“让贫困国家从家禽养殖业的发展中受益”的论调。

30Bottom retail pricesanywhere from 30% to 70% lower than those in Europe and Asiahave attracted some 47 millionvisitors, who are expected to leave behind $79 billion in 1994.

[参考译文]比欧洲和亚洲低30%~70%的零售价价格吸引了约四千七百万的游客于1994年涌入美国,而这些游客为美国留下了79亿美元的收入。

31It is said that the public and Congressional concern about deceptive(欺骗性的)packaging rumpus(喧嚣)started because Senator Hartdiscovered that the boxes of cereals consumed by him, Mrs. Hart, and theirchildren were becoming higher and narrower, with a decline of net weight from12 to 10 1/2 ounces, without any reduction in price.

[参考译文]参议员哈特一家在购买合装麦片时发现,包装盒变高了,变窄了,食品的分量也减少了,然而价格却分文未降。据说,由此在公众和议会中引发了一场关于欺骗性商品包装的轩然大波。

32The producers of packaged products argue strongly against changingsizes of packages to contain even weights and volumes, but no one in the tradecomments unfavorably on the huge costs incurred by endless changes of packagesizes, materials, shape, art work, and net weights that are used for improvinga product’s market position.

[参考译文]生产包装产品的商家极力反对在改变了包装上原有分量的商品,但他们却丝毫不反对为了扩大产品的市场优势,用于不断改变包装的大小、用料、形状、制作工艺以及商品的净重的大笔花费。

33The biographer has to dance between two shaky positions with respectto the subject.

全句的字面意思是:传记作家不得不在与传主所处的摇摆不定位置之间跳来跳去。

隐含之义为:传记作家必须与传主保持适当距离,并要时常调整与传主间的距离。

34Unlike other lawbreakers, who must leave the country, commitsuicide, or go to jail, computer criminals sometimes escape punishment,demanding not only that they not be charged but that they be given goodrecommendations and perhaps other benefits.

[参考译文]其他的违法者或者逃亡国外,或者自杀,或者进监狱,计算机犯罪分子却不同,他们可以逃避惩罚,并且要挟不要指控他们,甚至还要求为他们出具有利的推荐信或者为他们提供其他好处,他们的要求往往能够得到满足。

35Coleman concludes that excellent job performance is so common thesedays that while doing your work well may win you pay increases, it wont secure you the big promotion.

[参考译文]科尔曼得出的结论如下:如今出色的工作表现十分普遍,虽说工作出色你可以加薪,但你未必能够高升。

36The Oxford dictionary can therefore stand more vigorous scrutiny forcultural bias than the Longman dictionary because the latter does not hesitateabout viewing the rest of the world from the cultural perspectives of theEnglish-speaking world.

[参考译文]因此,《牛津词典》比《朗读曼词典》更经得起文化偏见的严格审视,因为后者总是说英语国家的视角来评判其他国家的文化现象。

37And this separation the detective feels between himself and the restof the world is deepened by the simple mindedness as he sees it-of citizens,social workers, doctors, law-makers, and judges, who, instead of eliminatingcrime punish the criminals less severely in the hope that this will make themreform.

[参考译文]由于警察认为人们(市民,社会工作者,医生,立法人员以及法官)头脑简单—比如,法官不是重罚以消除犯罪而是量刑从轻以期促使罪犯改过自新—因此,他们与社会之间的隔阂更深一层。

38The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthyof investigation, but, custom, we have a way of thinking, is behavior at itsmost commonplace.

[参考译文]对于人脑的内部活动,我们认为特别值得研究。但对于传统风俗,我们却觉得那不过是最最平常的行为而已。

39John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played bycustom in shaping the behavior of the individual as over against any way inwhich he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the totalvocabulary of his mother tongue over against those words of his own baby talkthat are taken up into the language of his family.

[参考译文]约翰·杜威曾经十分认真地说过,风俗习惯对个人的行为的影响与个人对传统习惯的影响之比,正如一个人母语的词汇总量与他儿时从家庭用语中学会的儿童用语之比。

40Through the study of instruments, as well as painting, writtendocuments, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near Eastto China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of NearEastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of theinstruments in the symphony orchestra.

[参考译文]通过对图片、文字记载以及乐器等的研究,我们可以了解一千多年以前近东音乐传入中国的情况,也可以勒出近东音乐的影响波及欧洲并导致交响乐的大部分乐器发展和演变的大致轮廓。

41Having evolved when the pace of life was slower, the human brain hasan inherent defect that prevents it from absorbing several streams ofinformation simultaneously and acting on them quickly.

[参考译文]由于在其进化期间,人类的生活节奏较为缓慢,人脑形成了固有的缺陷,不能同时接收来自多个渠道的信息并迅速进行处理。

42No one looking ahead 20 years possibly could have foreseen the waysin which a single invention, the chip, would transform our world thanks to itsapplications in personal computers, digital communications and factory robots.

[参考译文]如果20年前的人们预想现在的情况,恐怕谁也无法预见到仅集成电路块一项发明,一旦将其运用于个人电脑、数字通信和工厂机器人身上,会给世界带来怎样的变化。

43Interestingly, though, the rise of the unattractive overnightsuccesses was attributed more to personal relationships and less to abilitythan was that of attractive overnight successes.

[参考译文]然而,有趣的是,如果长相平平的女士和漂亮的女士都有突然获得成功,人们会认为长相平平的女士的人际关系比漂亮女士好,而她们的能力却不如漂亮女士。

44Most of these books, as well as several chapters, mainly in, but notlimited to, journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts, stressthe how to  aspects of journalisticinterviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview, its context,and implications.

[参考译文]大多数的这类书和一些章节强调如何进行采访,而不是研究采访的概念性问题,比如采访的概念性问题,比如采访的背景以及含义。这些章节主要见于,但也不限于,报章杂志、广播手册以及新闻报道的书籍中。

45In the second stage, the question of whether the home economy wasless efficient in producing these new goods and services was irrelevant; if thefamily were to enjoy these fruits of industrialization, they would have to beobtained in the marketplace.

[参考译文]在第二阶段,作坊经济生产提供这些新产品或新服务的效率是否低下已无关紧要。如果作坊成员要分享工业化的成果,他们必须到市场上去获得这些新产品和新服务。

46Just as the appearance of the automobile made the use of the horsedrawn carriage illegal and then impractical, and the appearance of televisionto a source of background music, so most of the fruits of economic growth didnot increase the options available to the home economy to either produce thegoods or services or purchase them in the market.

[参考译文]正如汽车的问世使得马车成为非法品、继而使其毫无用武之地,电视的出现使收音机的娱乐功能收缩为只用来播放一些背景音乐一样,多数的经济成果并没有给家庭作坊经济提供更多的选择余地:是自行提供这些产品或服务,还是到市场上去购买,它已别无选择。

47Ironically(讽刺性地), those things that keep us from knowing another person too well(e.g., secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of asatisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurateknowledge about a person (e.g., disclosures and truthful statements).

[参考译文]具有讽刺意义的是,在培养满意的人际关系方面,那些使我们不能很好地了解他人的事情(如隐秘、欺瞒)却跟那些有助于我们了解他人的事情(如自我展示、实话)一样重要。

48Making Apple computers capable of running IBM software is Apples effort at making the Mackintoshcompatible with IBM computers and thus more popular in the office, where Applehopes to increase sales.

[参考译文]通过使自己的产品能够运行IBM软件,苹果公司希望使Mackintosh机与IBM电脑兼容、进而使其更适合办公室应用。苹果公司希望增加其产品在办公室应用方面的销量。

49 In terms of our capacity to sample the relevant universes, however,and the probability that our images of these universes are at leastapproximately correct, one suspects that a reverse order is more reasonable.

[参考译文]然而,考虑到我们对有关领域的研究能力,以及我们对这些领域的认识至少大体正确这一点,也许以相反的顺序排列这三类学科更为合理。

50Even the folk knowledge in social systems on which ordinary life isbased in earning, spending, organizing, marrying, taking part in politicalactivities, fighting and so on, is not very dissimilar from the moresophisticated images of the social system derived from the social sciences,even though it is built upon the very imperfect samples of personal experience.

[参考译文]虽然仅仅是基于对个体经验的非常不完善的研究,但各个社会中老百姓关于收入、开支、组织、婚嫁、参与政治、战争等的知识却与社会学家关于社会学的复杂知识并无二致。这些民间知识是人们日常生活的基础。

51One doesnt lose ability and experience on the eve of ones 65th or 70th birthday any morethan one grows up instantly at age 21.

[参考译文]正如人在21岁时不会一夜之间突然长在成人一样,人在65岁或70岁生日的前夕,也不会一下失去他的能力和经验。

52A research paper, assigned in a course and perhaps checked atvarious stages by an instructor, leads you beyond classrooms, beyond the textsfor classes and into a process where the joy of discovery and learning can cometo you many times.

[参考译文]研究论文,多是在一门课程的学习过程中布置的,又有指导教师不时地进行检查,可以将学习者带出教室,使其摆脱课堂教材的束缚,进入一个不断获得新发现和新知识的充满乐趣的过程。

53At least by middle adulthood, the women who were involved in acombination of rolesmarriage, motherhood, and employmentwere the highest in well-being, despite warnings about stress andstrain.

[参考译文]至少在中年阶段上,最幸福的女性是那些身兼数职的妇女——她们为人妻,为人母,又有自己的职业,——尽管她们也很劳累很紧张。

54Most of the citizens of earlier generations knew little or nothingabout the complicated and delicate system that runs all through nature, andwhich means that, as in a living body, an unhealthy condition of one part willsooner or later be harmful to all the others.

[参考译文]我们的先辈对普遍存在于自然界、并制约自然界的、复杂而又脆弱的系统知之甚少,甚至一无所知。受制于这个系统的自然界就像生命体一样,一部分出了问题,其他部分迟早会受影响。

55We need to know the importance of big, mature trees, because livingspace for most of mans fellow creatures on this planet is figured not only in squaremeasure of surface but also in cubic volume above the earth.

[参考译文]我们要认识到大树的重要性,因为动物的生存空间不仅应按平方面积来计算,还应按立方体积来计算。

56They suggest that to knowingly give oneself over to a behavior thathas a statistical probability of shortening life is similar to attemptingsuicide.

[参考译文]他们认为,明知某些行为会缩短生命却还要去干,那无异于自杀。

32But the effect of all this on the food situation is this country hasbeen made worse by a simultaneous rise in food prices, due chiefly to thegradual cutting down of government support for food.

[参考译文]与此同时,由于政府逐步削减食品补贴而引起的价格上涨,使上述一切对英国的食品供应状况所产生的影响进一步恶化。

57More over, the rise in domestic prices has come at a time when worldprices have begun to fall, with the result that imported food, with theexception of grain, is often cheaper than the home-produced variety.

[参考译文]英国的食品价格是在世界食品价格开始下跌这一背景下上涨的,结果,除了谷物之外,其他进口食品通常要比本国食品还要便宜。

58The hard thing is knowing in some detail the reality of ignorance,the worst spots and here and there the not-so-bad spots, but no true light atthe end of the tunnel nor even any tunnels that can yet be trusted.

[参考译文]令人们感到痛苦的是,多少意识到自己无知,知道问题最大的地方和问题不太严重的地方,但却看不到解决问题的希望所在或解决问题的途径。

59The theoretical separation of living, working, traffic andrecreation which for many years has been used in town-and-country planning, hasin my opinion resulted in disproportionate attention for forms of recreationfar from home whereas there was relatively little attention for improvement ofrecreational  possibilities in the directneighborhood of the home.

[参考译文]多年来指导城乡建设规划的理论,是把生活区、工作区、交通地段和娱乐区彼此分开,结果,过多地发展了远离住宅区的娱乐设施而忽视了住宅区周围的娱乐设施。

60Also, union spokesmen emphasize that the benefit of the increasedproduction and lower costs made possible by automation should be shared byworkers in the form of higher wages, more leisure, and improved livingstandards.

[参考译文]同时,工会发言人强调,工人应该通过提高工资、延长休息时间和改善生活水平等形式来分享自动化带来的生产增加、成本降低的利益。

61And when fifty years ago being employed meant working as a factory laborer or as a farmhand, the employeeof today is increasingly a middleclass person with a substantial formaleducation, holding a professional or management job requiring intellectual andtechnical skills.

[参考译文]50年前,被雇佣意味着在工厂、农场当劳工。可是今天,雇员越来越多地来自中产阶级,他们受过较多的正规教育,从事对智力、技能要求较高的专业或管理工作。

62Certainly more people fail because they do not know the requirementsof being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills oftheir trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get intoadministrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to workwithin the organization rather than on technical abilities or professionalknowledge.

[参考译文]可以肯定,人们失败的原因更多的是不懂得如何当好雇员,而不是缺乏本行业的专业技能。你的地位越高,担任的行政管理工作权力越大,你就越要注意如何在单位内部开展工作方面下功夫,这比技术能力和专业知识重要得多。

63The ease, for example, with which people can change from working inthe day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industrywhere automation calls for round-the-clock working of machines.

[参考译文]例如,由于工业自动化要求机器昼夜运转,人们能否轻松地把白天工作改成晚上工作就成为工业生产中日益重要地问题了。

64 When they change to night work the pattern will only gradually goback to match the new routine and the speed with which it does so parallels,broadly speaking, the adaptation of the body as a whole, particularly in termsof performance.

[参考译文]当他们改上夜班时,这个模式又要重新逐渐适应新的情况,这一适应变化的速度与整个身体的适应程度大体一致,从工作表现方面来看更是如此。

65Certainly it has extended the scope of human conflicts, since itimpartially disseminates(传播)the useful knowledge of scientists and the nonsense of the ignorant,the affection of the affectionate and the malice(恶意)of the malicious.

[参考译文]当然,由于电话不偏不倚地传播科学家的真知,无知者的废话,仁者的爱心,歹徒的恶意,它也就扩大了人间冲突的范围。

66To say that the child learns by imitation and that the way to teachis to set a good example oversimplifies.

[参考译文]认为儿童通过模仿学习,因此认为给儿童树立榜样便是教育儿童的诀窍,这种观点把问题简单化了。

67A million years further on man and his machines may have merged asclosely as the muscles of the human body and the nerve cells that set them inmotion.

[参考译文]再过一百万年,人类与他制造的机械装置就会合而为一,其关系之密切正如人体的肌肉和控制肌肉运动的神经细胞密不可分一样。

文章转自:公众号“综合英语嘉年华”

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