1．Our linguistic（语言上的）and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take noticeof the developed tastes, gestures, customs and languages of other countries,are losing us friends, business and respect in the world.
【分析】这是一个复杂的简单句；句子的主干是Our blindness and casualness are losing us. with which 引导一个定语从句修饰casualness. take notice of意思是“注意到”。
2．A simple trip around the yard in a pair of those babies eliminatesall need to call for a lawn care specialist, and provides the perfect-sizedholes to give any lawn oxygen without all those messy chunks of dirt lyingaround.
【分析】这是一个复杂的简单句；句子的主干是A simple trip eliminates all need and provides holes. messy chunksof dirt：乱七八糟的脏东西。
3．But my own worry today is less that of the overwhelming problem ofelemental literacy than it is of the slightly more luxurious problem of thedecline in the skill even of the middle-class reader, of his unwillingness toafford those spaces of silence, those luxuries of domesticity and time andconcentration, that surround the image of the classic act of reading.
【分析】这是一个带有比较级的句子，主干是：But my own worry today is less that than.
4．This violation of concentration, silence, solitude（独处的状态）goes to the very heart of ournotion of literacy; this new form of part-reading, of part-perception againstbackground distraction, renders impossible certain essential acts ofapprehension and concentration, let alone that most important tribute any humanbeing can pay to a poem or a piece of prose he or she really loves, which is tolearn it by heart.
【分析】这是一个并列句。第一个分句的主干是：this violation goes to the heart of literacy.，第二个分句的主干是this new form renders…,let alone …。
5．And with doubtful prospects for a short-term financial return, withthe cold war a rapidly fading memory and amid a growing emphasis oninternational cooperation in large space ventures, it is clear that imperativesother than profits or nationalism will have to compel human beings to leave theirtracks on the planet's reddish surface.
【分析】句子的主干是itis clear that imperatives will have to compel human beings to leave tracks onthe planet’s reddishsurface.；两个with分别引导两个伴随状语。
6．The issue of whether life ever existed on the planet, and whether itpersists to this day, has been highlighted by mounting evidence that the RedPlanet once had abundant stable, liquid water and by the continuing controversyover suggestions that bacterial fossils rode to Earth on a meteorite（陨石）from Mars.
【分析】句子的主干是Thisissue has been highlighted.由两地whether引导的从句做of的宾语；两个that所引导的从句分别做evidence和suggestions的同位语。
7．What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control overan event, not th4e experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.
8．Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, hasshown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don't developsleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats.
【分析】that引导的宾语从句中又包含一个who引导的定语从句，修饰animals。 typical of sb.意思是“以……为特征的”。这句话中这个词组之前省略了，which is，是两个现象的定语从句。
9．The reasons why they don't, and why the environment has not beenruined, have to do with prices, technological innovation, social change andgovernment regulation in response to popular pressure.
【分析】句子的主干是Thereasons have to do with prices, technological innovation, social change andgovernment regulation. 两个why均引导定语从句修饰reasons.in response to popular pressure做regulation的后置定语。
10．What has happened is that every time a material seems to be runningshort, the price has risen and, in response, people have looked for new sourcesof supply, tried to find ways to use less of the material, or looked for a newsubstitute.
【分析】这是简单的复杂句，句子的主干是What has happened is that。主语是what引导的主语从句，谓语是that引导的名词性从句；该从句中every time 引导一个时间状语从句，为第三层从句。
11．Not too many decades ago it seemed "obvious" both to thegeneral public and to sociologists that modern society has changed people'snatural relations, loosened their responsibilities to kin (亲戚) and neighbors, and substitutedin their place superficial relationships with passing acquaintances.
【分析】句子的主干是itseemed "obvious" that ，that之后引导一个很长的主语从句；该从句的谓语动词有三个：changed, loosened, substituted.
12． Nor are residents of large communities any likelier to displaypsychological symptoms of stress or alienation, a feeling of not belonging,than are residents of smaller communities.
【分析】这是一个含有比较级的倒装句；a feeling of not belonging是插入语，进一步解释alienation的含义。
13． As environmentalists convene in Rio de Janeiro this week to ponderthe global climate of the future, earth scientists are in the midst of arevolution in understanding how climate has changed in the past — and how those changes havetransformed human existence.
【分析】句子的主干是earthscientists are in the midst of a revolution。As引导一个时间状语从句，两个how分别引导宾语从句，做understanding的宾语。
14．Researchers have begun to piece together an illuminating picture ofthe powerful geological and astronomical forces that have combined to changethe planet’s environmentfrom hot to cold, wet to dry and back again over a time period stretching backhundreds of millions of years.
【分析】句子的主干是Researchershave begun to piece together an illuminating picture。That引导一个定于从句修饰forces。
15． New research now suggests that climate shifts have played a keyrole in nearly every significant turning point in human evolution: from thedawn of primates (灵长目动物) some 65 million years ago to human ancestors rising up to walk ontwo legs, from the huge expansion of the human brain to the rise ofagriculture.
【分析】复杂的简单句，句子的主干是New research now suggests that……，that引导宾语从句，冒号后面的成分是对a key role 的说明。
16． In the emic approach, the goal is to describe behavior in oneculture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and important to thepeople in that culture or ethnic group, without regard to other cultures orethnic groups.
【分析】句子的主干是thegoal is to describe behavior。Regard是名词，而不是动词。
17． The MBA, a 20th-century product, always has borne the mark of lowlycommerce and greed (贪婪) on the tree-lined campuses ruled by purer disciplines such asphilosophy and literature.
【分析】复杂的简单句，句子的主干是The MBA has borne the mark of lowly commerce and greed. such as 做discipline的同位语，ruled以过去分词的形式做campuses的后置定语，on the tree-lined campuses 做地点状语。
18． This is nearly 16 times the number of business graduates in 1960, atestimony to the widespread assumption that the MBA is vital for young men andwomen who want to run companies some day.
【分析】句子的主干是Thisis nearly 16 times the number of business graduates in 1960，a testimony ……相当于which is a testimony……。that 后面引导一个同位语从句修饰assumption，其中又包含一个以who引导的定于从句。
19． The success of Bill Gates and other non-MBAs, such as the late SamWalton of Wal-Mart Stores Inc., has helped inspire self-conscious debates onbusiness school campuses over the worth of a business degree and whethermanagement skills can be taught.
【分析】句子的主干是Thesuccess has helped inspire self-conscious debates. whether 引导一个宾语从句和the worth 一同做over 的宾语。
【译文】比尔·盖茨和其他非MBA，如已故Wal-Mart 连锁店的Sam Walton的成功，在商校校园里引起了有关工商学位的价值和管理技能是否可以通过教育获得等问题的自发讨论。
20． Motivated in part by Christian compassion (怜悯) for the helpless as well as a practicalpolitical impulse to undercut the support of the socialist labor movement,Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensation law in1884.
【分析】复杂的简单句，motivated…… 相当于As he was motivated ……，在句中做原因状语。句子的主干是Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensationlaw in 1884.
21．Thus many in the industrial lands have a sense that their world ofplenty is somehow hollow-that, misled by a consumerist culture, they have beenfruitlessly attempting to satisfy what are essentially social, psychologicaland spiritual needs with material things.
【分析】这个句子的结构比较复杂，句子的主干是many have a sense. 第一个that引导sense的同位语；第二个that引导hollow的同位语；misled by a consumerist culture是原因状语；what引导satisfy的宾语从句。
22． A new study by Dan Farmer, a gifted programmer, using an automatedinvestigative program of hisown called SATAN,shows that the owners of well over half of all World Wide Web siteshave set up home without fitting locks to their doors.
【分析】句子的主干是Anew study shows that……，using作方式伴随状语，that引导一个宾语从句，该从句的主干是the owners have setup home
23． Of Ezekiel Cheever, the most famous schoolmaster of theMassachusetts Bay Colony, hisonetime student Cotton Mather wrote that he so planned his lessonsthat his pupils "came towork as though they came to play," and Alfred North Whitehead,almost three hundred yearslater, noted that a teacher should make his/her students" gladthey were there."
【分析】这是一个并列复合句，第一个分句的主语是hisonetimestudent Cotton Mather；第二个分句的主语是Alfred North Whitehead；两个分句各代一个宾语从句。
【译文】曾经是EzekielCheever, 这个马塞诸州海湾殖民地最著名的校长的学生，Cotton Mather 写到，他备的课程能让学生们感觉“上学就像玩一样”，过了大约三百年，Alfred North Whitehead 注意到一个教师必须使他/她的学生“高兴上学”。
24． A new high-performance contact lens under development at thedepartment for applied physics at theUniversity of Heidelberg will not only correct ordinary visiondefects but will enhance normal night vision as much as five times, makingpeople's vision sharper than that of cats.
【分析】这是一句比较长的简单句。句子的主干是contact lens will not only correct ordinary vision defects but willenhance normal night vision. under development作主语的定语，而making people's vision sharper than that of cats作目的状语。
25． Bille's lenses are expected to reach the market in the year 2000,and one tentative plan is to use theInternet to transmit information on patients' visual defects fromthe optician to the manufacturer, whowill then produce and mail the contact lenses within a couple ofdays.
【分析】这是一个并列符合句，前一个分句的主干是Bille's lenses are expected to reach the market；后一个分句的主干是one tentative plan is……；who 引导一个菲限定性定语从句来修饰 manufacturer。
26．In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of RochesterSchool of Medicine conditioned（使形成条件反射） mice to avoid saccharin（糖精） by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting themwith a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused stomach upsets.
27．The Times newspaper agrees, complaining that quality has suffered asstudent numbers soared, with close tutorial supervision giving way to “mass production methods moretypical of European universities.”
28．By studying mineral grains found in material ranging from rocks toclay articles, previous researchers have already been able to identifyreversals dating back 170 million years, including the most recent switch730,000 years ago.
29．Not content with its doubtful claim to produce cheap food for ourown population, the factory farming industry also argues that “hungry nations are benefiting fromadvances made by the poultry industry.”
30．Bottom retail prices—anywhere from 30% to 70% lower than those in Europe and Asia—have attracted some 47 millionvisitors, who are expected to leave behind $79 billion in 1994.
31．It is said that the public and Congressional concern about deceptive（欺骗性的）packaging rumpus（喧嚣）started because Senator Hartdiscovered that the boxes of cereals consumed by him, Mrs. Hart, and theirchildren were becoming higher and narrower, with a decline of net weight from12 to 10 1/2 ounces, without any reduction in price.
32．The producers of packaged products argue strongly against changingsizes of packages to contain even weights and volumes, but no one in the tradecomments unfavorably on the huge costs incurred by endless changes of packagesizes, materials, shape, art work, and net weights that are used for improvinga product’s market position.
33．The biographer has to dance between two shaky positions with respectto the subject.
34．Unlike other lawbreakers, who must leave the country, commitsuicide, or go to jail, computer criminals sometimes escape punishment,demanding not only that they not be charged but that they be given goodrecommendations and perhaps other benefits.
35．Coleman concludes that excellent job performance is so common thesedays that while doing your work well may win you pay increases, it won’t secure you the big promotion.
36．The Oxford dictionary can therefore stand more vigorous scrutiny forcultural bias than the Longman dictionary because the latter does not hesitateabout viewing the rest of the world from the cultural perspectives of theEnglish-speaking world.
37．And this separation the detective feels between himself and the restof the world is deepened by the simple mindedness as he sees it-of citizens,social workers, doctors, law-makers, and judges, who, instead of eliminatingcrime punish the criminals less severely in the hope that this will make themreform.
38．The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthyof investigation, but, custom, we have a way of thinking, is behavior at itsmost commonplace.
39．John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played bycustom in shaping the behavior of the individual as over against any way inwhich he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the totalvocabulary of his mother tongue over against those words of his own baby talkthat are taken up into the language of his family.
40．Through the study of instruments, as well as painting, writtendocuments, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near Eastto China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of NearEastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of theinstruments in the symphony orchestra.
41．Having evolved when the pace of life was slower, the human brain hasan inherent defect that prevents it from absorbing several streams ofinformation simultaneously and acting on them quickly.
42．No one looking ahead 20 years possibly could have foreseen the waysin which a single invention, the chip, would transform our world thanks to itsapplications in personal computers, digital communications and factory robots.
43．Interestingly, though, the rise of the unattractive overnightsuccesses was attributed more to personal relationships and less to abilitythan was that of attractive overnight successes.
44．Most of these books, as well as several chapters, mainly in, but notlimited to, journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts, stressthe “how to ” aspects of journalisticinterviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview, its context,and implications.
45．In the second stage, the question of whether the home economy wasless efficient in producing these new goods and services was irrelevant; if thefamily were to enjoy these fruits of industrialization, they would have to beobtained in the marketplace.
46．Just as the appearance of the automobile made the use of the horsedrawn carriage illegal and then impractical, and the appearance of televisionto a source of background music, so most of the fruits of economic growth didnot increase the options available to the home economy to either produce thegoods or services or purchase them in the market.
47．Ironically（讽刺性地）, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well(e.g., secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of asatisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurateknowledge about a person (e.g., disclosures and truthful statements).
48．Making Apple computers capable of running IBM software is Apple’s effort at making the Mackintoshcompatible with IBM computers and thus more popular in the office, where Applehopes to increase sales.
49． In terms of our capacity to sample the relevant universes, however,and the probability that our images of these universes are at leastapproximately correct, one suspects that a reverse order is more reasonable.
50．Even the folk knowledge in social systems on which ordinary life isbased in earning, spending, organizing, marrying, taking part in politicalactivities, fighting and so on, is not very dissimilar from the moresophisticated images of the social system derived from the social sciences,even though it is built upon the very imperfect samples of personal experience.
51．One doesn’t lose ability and experience on the eve of one’s 65th or 70th birthday any morethan one grows up instantly at age 21.
52．A research paper, assigned in a course and perhaps checked atvarious stages by an instructor, leads you beyond classrooms, beyond the textsfor classes and into a process where the joy of discovery and learning can cometo you many times.
53．At least by middle adulthood, the women who were involved in acombination of roles—marriage, motherhood, and employment—were the highest in well-being, despite warnings about stress andstrain.
54．Most of the citizens of earlier generations knew little or nothingabout the complicated and delicate system that runs all through nature, andwhich means that, as in a living body, an unhealthy condition of one part willsooner or later be harmful to all the others.
55．We need to know the importance of big, mature trees, because livingspace for most of man’s fellow creatures on this planet is figured not only in squaremeasure of surface but also in cubic volume above the earth.
56．They suggest that to knowingly give oneself over to a behavior thathas a statistical probability of shortening life is similar to attemptingsuicide.
32．But the effect of all this on the food situation is this country hasbeen made worse by a simultaneous rise in food prices, due chiefly to thegradual cutting down of government support for food.
57．More over, the rise in domestic prices has come at a time when worldprices have begun to fall, with the result that imported food, with theexception of grain, is often cheaper than the home-produced variety.
58．The hard thing is knowing in some detail the reality of ignorance,the worst spots and here and there the not-so-bad spots, but no true light atthe end of the tunnel nor even any tunnels that can yet be trusted.
59．The theoretical separation of living, working, traffic andrecreation which for many years has been used in town-and-country planning, hasin my opinion resulted in disproportionate attention for forms of recreationfar from home whereas there was relatively little attention for improvement ofrecreational possibilities in the directneighborhood of the home.
60．Also, union spokesmen emphasize that the benefit of the increasedproduction and lower costs made possible by automation should be shared byworkers in the form of higher wages, more leisure, and improved livingstandards.
61．And when fifty years ago “being employed” meant working as a factory laborer or as a farmhand, the employeeof today is increasingly a middleclass person with a substantial formaleducation, holding a professional or management job requiring intellectual andtechnical skills.
62．Certainly more people fail because they do not know the requirementsof being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills oftheir trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get intoadministrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to workwithin the organization rather than on technical abilities or professionalknowledge.
63．The ease, for example, with which people can change from working inthe day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industrywhere automation calls for round-the-clock working of machines.
64． When they change to night work the pattern will only gradually goback to match the new routine and the speed with which it does so parallels,broadly speaking, the adaptation of the body as a whole, particularly in termsof performance.
65．Certainly it has extended the scope of human conflicts, since itimpartially disseminates（传播）the useful knowledge of scientists and the nonsense of the ignorant,the affection of the affectionate and the malice（恶意）of the malicious.
66．To say that the child learns by imitation and that the way to teachis to set a good example oversimplifies.
67．A million years further on man and his machines may have merged asclosely as the muscles of the human body and the nerve cells that set them inmotion.