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传统阅读，平均每次考试大部分属于2.结构顺序相同，而词语同义替换和3. 语序调整同义替换，少数会出现1. 原文再现和4. 全文整体同义转换。
52. In theearly 20th century Americans believed science and technology could _______.
［A］ solve virtually all existing problems ［C］ help raise people’s living standards
［B］ quicken the pace of industrialization ［D］ promote the nation’s social progress
In the early 20th century, few things weremore appealing than the promise of scientific knowledge. In a world strugglingwith rapid industrialization, science and technology seemed to offer solutionsto almost every problem.
由此可见，A项最为接近原文，属于2. 结构顺序相同，而词语同义替换。把原文中的offer solutions to almost every problem替换成了solvevirtually all existing problems。
53. Why did many American scholars become enthusiastic about humanistic studiesafter World WarⅡ?
［A］ They wanted to improve their own status within the currenteducation system.
［B］ They believed the stability of a society depended heavily onhumanistic studies.
［C］ They could get financial support from various foundations forhumanistic studies.
［D］ They realized science and technology alone were no guarantee for abetter world.
Two world wars and a Great Depressionrocked the confidence of many people that scientific expertise alone couldcreate a prosperous and ordered world. After World War Ⅱ, theacademic world turned with new enthusiasm to humanistic studies, which seemedto many scholars the best way to ensure the survival of democracy.
由此可见，D项与原文最为接近，属于2. 结构顺序相同，而词语同义替换。把原文中的rocked the confidence …… scientific expertise alone could create a prosperous and orderedworld替换成了science and technology alone were no guarantee for a better world。
54. Why areAmerican scholars worried about education today?
［A］ The STEM subjects are too challenging for students to learn.
［B］ Some Asian countries have overtaken America in basic sciences.
［C］ America is lagging behind in the STEM disciplines.
［D］ There are not enough scholars in humanistic studies.
There is considerable and justified concernthat the United States is falling behind much of the rest of thedeveloped world in these essential disciplines.
由此可见，C项最为接近原文，属于2. 结构顺序相同，而词语同义替换。把原文中的falling替换成了lagging，essential disciplines指代上文中的STEM disciplines。
55. Whataccounts for the significant decline in humanistic studies today?
［A］ Insufficient funding. ［C］ Shortage of devoted faculty.
［B］ Shrinking enrollment. ［D］ Dim prospects for graduates.
At the same time, perhaps inevitably, thehumanities—while still popular in elite colleges and universities—haveexperienced a significant decline. Humanistic disciplines are seriouslyunderfunded, not just by the government and the foundations but by academicinstitutions themselves.
由此可见，A项与原文最接近，属于2. 结构顺序相同，词语同义替换。把原文中的underfunded替换成了insufficient funding。
56. Why doesthe author attach so much importance to humanistic studies?
［A］ They promote the development of science and technology.
［B］ They help prepare students for their professional careers.
［C］ Humanistic thinking helps define our culture and values.
［D］ Humanistic thinking helps cultivate students’ creativity.
But try to imagine our world as wellwithout the remarkable works that have defined our culture and values.
Will there ever be another Einstein? Thisis the undercurrent of conversation at Einstein memorial meetings throughoutthe year. A new Einstein will emerge, scientists say. But it may take a longtime. After all, more than 200 years separated Einstein from his nearest rival,Isaac Newton.
Many physicists say the next Einstein hasn’t been bornyet, or is a baby now. That’s because the quest for a unified theory that would account for allthe forces of nature has pushed current mathematics to its limits. New mathmust be created before the problem can be solved.
But researchers say there are many otherfactors working against another Einstein emerging anytime soon.
For one thing, physics is a much differentfield today. In Einstein’s day, there were only a few thousand physicists worldwide, and thetheoreticians who could intellectually rival Einstein probably would fit into astreetcar with seats to spare.
Education is different, too. One crucialaspect of Einstein’s training that is overlooked is the years of philosophy he read asa teenager—Kant, Schopenhauer and Spinoza, among others. It taught him how tothink independently and abstractly about space and time, and it wasn’t longbefore he became a philosopher himself.
“The independence created by philosophical insight is—in myopinion—the mark of distinction between a mere artisan (工匠) orspecialist and a real seeker after truth,” Einstein wrote in1944.
And he was an accomplished musician. Theinterplay between music and math is well known. Einstein would furiously playhis violin as a way to think through a knotty physics problem.
Today, universities have produced millionsof physicists. There aren’t many jobs in science for them, so they go to Wall Street andSilicon Valley to apply their analytical skills to more practical—andrewarding—efforts.
“Maybe there is an Einstein out there today,” saidColumbia University physicist Brian Greene, “but it would be alot harder for him to be heard.”
Especially considering what Einstein wasproposing.
“The actual fabric of space and time curving? My God, what an idea!” Greene saidat a recent gathering at the Aspen Institute. “It takes a certaintype of person who will bang his head against the wall because you believe you’ll find thesolution.”
Perhaps the best examples are the fivescientific papers Einstein wrote in his “miracle year” of 1905.These “thought experiments” were pages of calculations signed and submitted to the prestigiousjournal Annalen der Physik by a virtual unknown. There were no footnotes orcitations.
What might happen to such a submissiontoday?
“We all get papers like those in the mail,” Greenesaid. “We put them in the junk file.”
57. What doscientists seem to agree upon, judging from the first two paragraphs?
［A］ Einstein pushed mathematics almost to its limits.
［B］ It will take another Einstein to build a unified theory.
［C］ No physicist is likely to surpass Einstein in the next 200 years.
［D］ It will be some time before a new Einstein emerges.
58. What wascritical to Einstein’s success?
［A］ His talent as an accomplished musician.
［B］ His independent and abstract thinking.
［C］ His untiring effort to fulfill his potential.
［D］ His solid foundation in math theory.
59. What doesthe author tell us about physicists today?
［A］ They tend to neglect training in analytical skills.
［B］ They are very good at solving practical problems.
［C］ They attach great importance to publishing academic papers.
［D］ They often go into fields yielding greater financial benefits.
60. What doesBrian Greene imply by saying “... it would be a lot harder for him to be heard” (Lines 1-2,Para. 9)?
［A］ People have to compete in order to get their papers published.
［B］ It is hard for a scientist to have his papers published today.
［C］ Papers like Einstein’s would unlikely get published today.
［D］ Nobody will read papers on apparently ridiculous theories.
61. When he submitted his papers in 1905, Einstein _______.
［A］ forgot to make footnotes and citations
［B］ was little known in academic circles
［C］ was known as a young genius in math calculations
［D］ knew nothing about the format of academic papers
57. D）It will be some timebefore a new Einstein emerges （3. 语序调整同义替换）
58. B）His independent andabstract thinking （2. 结构顺序相同，而词语同义替换）
59. D）They often go intofields yielding greater financial benefits （4. 全文整体同义转换）
60. C）Papers like Einstein’s wouldunlikely get published today （4. 全文整体同义转换）
61. B）was little known inacademic circles （2. 结构顺序相同，而词语同义替换）
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